This survey in an institution for mentally retarded children revealed that 4 (5.5%) out of 73 children and 3 (2.3%) out of 129 employees were carriers of hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) and a 22-year-old man became carrier 6 months after admission to this institution. He revealed normal liver function. HBsAg of saliva was detected in 35 out of 113 samples from 4 children and 3 employees with positive serum HBsAg determined by RIA, but not detected in 6 samples of saliva from 3 children with negative serum HBsAg. It was noted that HBsAg of saliva was detected in 73.5% out of the 35 samples inwhich occult blood of saliva was positive, and in 12.7% out of the 79 occult blood negative samples. These results suggest that HBsAg of saliva is mainly derived from blood contamination and HBsAg positive saliva is probably the main vehicle in spread of HB virus.
Ozone sterilization was applied to a bioclean room and its effect was compared with that of formaldehyde sterilization, which has been commonly used. When the sterilization effect of ozone was examined by using E. coli, B. subtilis and Penicillium sp., B. subtilis had the most resistance to ozone and remained alive for 72 hr, on the other hand, Penicillium sp. immediately lost its activity. It was, therefore, considered that the 72-hr value of B. subtilis was repuired as an index value for the evaluation of the effect of ozone sterilization. When the statistical evaluation was done as to the effect of ozone sterilization, temperaturedependence was not seen, but the twice sterilization was much more effective than the once one. Also, the effect of ozone sterilization was statistically comparable to that of formaldehyde. From those results and some merits of ozone; ex. gas generation is easy, no adhesion to materials occures and exhausting time is short, while formaldehyde has some demerits like paraformaldehyde formation and so on, ozone sterilization method seems to be practically superior to the usual method of formaldehyde sterilization. When the statistical evaluation was done as to the effect of ozone sterilization, temperature dependence was not seen, but the twice sterilization was much more effective than the once one. Also, the effect of ozone sterilization was statistically comparable to that of formaldehyde. From those results and some merits of ozone; ex. gas generation is easy, no adhesion to materials occures and exhausting time is short, while formaldehyde has some demerits like paraformaldehyde formation and so on, ozone sterilization method seems to be practically superior to the usual method of formaldehyde sterilization.
Bactericidal activities upon gram-negative bacilli of various disinfectants (phenol, cresol soap, iodophor, benzethonium chloride, chlorhexidine, glutaraldehyde, alkil di (amino ethyl) glycin and triclosan) were examined by a method similar to that for determining the phenol index for the purpose of evaluating fundamentally the effect of disinfectants. The results may be summarized as follows: On the disinfectants tested, those showing bactericidal effects at the concentration routinely used and upon exposure for one minute or shorter were phenol, cresol soap, iodophor and glutaraldehyde. Chlorhexidine and benzethonium chloride showed ver y inconsistent bactericidal effects o n gramnegative bacilli by short-time exposure. Many strains were not killed by these agents at concentrations routinely used. The bactericidal effect of chlorhexidine was enhanced when used in the presence of ethanol. Addition of blood serum, affecting most largely the effect of iodophor, markedly lowered the bactericidal effect.
A 38-year-old woman was admitted on 26th August, because of fever of unknown origin. She enjoyed good health until August 16th, 1977 when she suddenly had high fever accompanied by chills. On 20th August, she called on a physician in the outpatient department of KawasakiMunicipal Hospital. Aspirin and antibiotics were given and then fever disappeared. On 23rd, high feverredeveloped. Her past history disclosed no problems. However, her husband confessed he noticed initial induration on his penis after travelling abroad. Physical examination revealed swelling of surface lymphnodes in the inguinales and axillas and hepatomegaly. Laboratory data showed GOT 49 IU, GPT 26 IU, alkalinephosphatase 525 IU, α-GPT 85 IU, HBAg nagative, STS positive and IgM 269 mg/dl. Liver biopsy was perfomed and it showed that the portal duct was infiltrated by round cells with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and in the lobules of liver several scattered foci of degeration and necrosis were observed. The pathological changes stated above was compatible with the liver involvement of early syphilis. The elevation of serum transaminase gradually went down into the normal range with the treatment of erythromycin.