To elucidate the distribution of anti-Human T-cell Leukemia Virus antibody of the adults in Miyazaki Prefecture, 1, 863 serum samples were examined by indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique with HUT 102 as the target cell, and the following results were obtained. The positive rate was 9.9 per cent as a whole, and 6.3% for male and 11.3% for female. It increased gradually by age from 15 till 54 years old and elevated remarkably at the age group of 55-64, showing the highest rate of 19.3% for female and 11.1% for male, respectively. The geometric mean titer was 59.7. The titer was higher in the older age group. In the geographical distribution, a wide variation of the positive rate was observed among areas. The lowest was 4.4% and the highest was 32.1%. As the general tendency, areas with high positive rate seemed to be observed more frequently in the southern part of the Prefecture than the northern part. It was, however, difficult to find any environmental factor that related to the positive rate of the residents.
Toxoplasma IgM antibody (Tp-IgM) was measred using Indirect Hemagglutination test (IHA), Latex Hemagglutination Test (LA) and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the purpose of the serological diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis. 3371 sera obtained in Nagasaki city from September 1979 to July 1982 were examined. In IHA and LA method, the strict examination using Surcose gradient centrifugation, Dye test and Absorption test by Toxoplasma gondii revelaed that only two specimens of one patient contained Tp-IgM exactly. Therefore it seemed that IHA and LA method were not enough to detect Tp-IgM. So we developed new method, that is IgM TOXO-ELISA system, utilizing IgG TOXO ELISA Test kit (M. A. Bioproducts). Protein A treatment serum was used as a specimen and Anti human IgM Al-phos. conjugate was substituted for Anti human IgG Al-phos. conjugate. This method was shown to be extremely more sensitive and specific than IHA and LA method. So it will come into wide use of future.
An attempt was made to prepare Campylobacter jejuni derived antigen (hereinafter abbreviated as C.j. antigen) which reacts with sera obtained from patients with Campylobacter enteritis. A strain (Hisaichi strain) isolated from a patient with C. jejuni enteritis was cultured on blood agar plates. The bacteria were homogenized by a homogenizer and soluble antigen (s) was extracted. The crude materials thus obtained were chromatographied through a Sepharose 4B column and a DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. The C.j. antigen was assayed by the ELISA methods which has been already reported. The purified preparation of C.j. antigen showed almost one band in the electrophoresis. A total of 36 samples of sera obtained from patients with Campylobacter enteritis was tested by the use of the purified C.j. antigen. As a result, about 79% of sera turned to be positive. In sera obtained from healthy (non-enteritis) subjects (9 samples), no antibodies for C.j. antigen existed. When antibodies existing in sera of patients are detected by the ELISA method, purified antigen should be used so that nonspecific responses can be avoided. The antigen, which the authors extracted and isolated from C. jejuni and purified in the present study, seems to help us not only to diagnose C. jejuni enteritis but also to clarify pathogenesis of C. jejuni infections.
During the period of 1980-1982, a total of 2, 457 strains of group A hemolytic streptococci were isolated in Japan. We examined the susceptibility to antibiotics and 1927 strains of them were typed serologically by T-agglutination procedure. 86 strains of group B hemolytics isolated in 1982 were also subjected to the antibiotics susceptibility test. The results were as follow: 1) None of the resistant strains against β-lactam group of antibiotics was found as former survey. 2) Incidence of the TC-resistant strains in whole isolates has not been changed since 1976. Those of CP-and MLs-resistant isolates increased since 1978 till 1981, then decreased in 1982. 3) The main sources of a resistant isolates were scarlet fever patients and next to them were the patients of infectious disease other than scarlet fever. 4) Serotype 12 was the main type in isolates from infectious disease patients including scarlet fever, but from the healthy pupil, serotype 12, 1, 6, 13, 28 were isolated nearly same rate. 5) The number of multiple resistant strains of serotype 12 decreased remarkably in 1982. We found that the isolates of serotype 1 tend to be sensitive to all antibiotics, those of type 4 TC monoresistant, and type 6 TC-CP biresistant. All of the type 18 strains were sensitive to all antibiotics studied. 6) One of the 86 strains of group B hemolytic storeptococci had ≥ 400, μ g/ml MIC against OL, but remained relatively sensitive to EM.
In order to investigate relation between numbers of patient with streptococcal infectious disease (SID) and meteorological data, we carried out multiple regression analysis on numbers of patient with SID per a hospital per a decade of a month and meteorological data of max. temperature, mean temperature, relative humidity, mean vapor pressure, precipitation and total radiation on a horizontal surface per a decade of a month during the period from September in 1978 to March in 1983, using small computer of type Canon CX-1 and its program. A significant multiple regression equation with relatively high multiple correlation coefficient (0.8357) and proportion (0.69839) was obtained. The analysis tests on acute infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis, herpangina, epidemic kerato conjunctivitis and varicella were also done, respectively, and then significant multiple regression equations with higher multiple correlation coefficients and proportions than that of SID were obtained with the exception of varicella. Thus, it seems likely to estimate numbers of patients with above each infectious disease from meteorological data.
Using sera from 120 Ecuador people in 1982, a seroepidemiological study was carried out by detecting antibodies against type specific T antigens of type 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 44, 49, B3264 and Imp. 19 of S. pyogenes, respectively. 1) Positive rate possessing T antibodies of one or more types in Ecuador people aged three months to 78 years was 74.2% and significantly higher than the rate in Akita people in northern Japan where had high incidence of streptococcal infectious diseases. Among the positive rates by age group, those in 7 to 9 and 13 to 15 year old age groups and adults over 20 years, respectively, were as high as 93.3%. 2) 33.3% of antibody positive rate to type 28 antigen was higher than those to antigens of other 20 serotypes, and then the rates of T antibody positive against type 4, 12, 3, 2, 25, 49 and B3264 antigens, respectively, followed. The rates of T antibody positive against type 2, 3, 8, 22, 25, 28 and Imp. 19 in Ecuador, respectively, were also significantly higher than those in Akita. 3) Thus, it was suggested that the incidence of streptococcal infections in Ecuador might exceed that in Akita.
The existing inoculation program against influenza has been carried out annually on schoolchildren of primary and lower secondary schools in Japan, since the most remarkable defensive effect can be expected from it from the viewpoint of the collective defense against infection. Recently, there has been a distinct increase in the population of the aged. The present analysis was made on the death of the aged in the epidemic of influenza to obtain basic data available for the establishment of an inoculation program against this disease for the aged. When observation was made on annual changes in the morbidity rare of influenza as reported legally, it was clear that this rate was ourstandingly high in years when an antigenic variation was found in the epidemic virus strain. When the morbidity rate was analyzed by the age group, it was high in the group of young age and low in the aged group of more than 65 years. There was a tendency for the annual death rate of influenza and pneumonia to decrease year by year. This rate tended to decrease in the aged group of 0 to 64 years, but to show a plateau in the age group of 65 years and over, and to increase particularly in the age group of more than 80 years. The death rate of influenza and pneumonia, as analyzed by the age group, showed a marked decrease in the group of the young, but a consicuous increase in the group of theaged or 65 years and over. The rate of increase in death of main diseases during the period of epidemic of influenza was calculated, the death rate in the year prior to the epidemic being regarded as 100. There was an increase in the death rate of cardiac diseases, that of tuberculosis of the respiratory system, and the total death rate during the period of epidemic of influenza.
Between 1979 and 1983, stools were collected from infants and young children suffering from acute diarrhea in Kagawa Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan. These were examined by electron microscopy. Rotaviral, adenoviral, and small spherical particles were found. The last group was subclassified further as: calicivirus, particles resembling the Norwalk agent, smooth-surfaced particles of 25-30 nm diameter, and rough-surfaced ones of 30-35 nm. Rotavirus was found mainly between December and March, inclusive; the pattern of detection was distinct and consistent over the surveillance period. Adenovirus was observed during summer and small spherical particles during winter in the period studied. The detection pattern of these two groups differed yearly.
Clinical effect of DL-8280, a new oral antimicrobial agent, was investigatect against z4 patients with male gonococcal urethritis. The patients consisted of age distribution between 21 and 55 years. The dose was 200 mg b. i. d. and the duration of administration was 5 or 6 consecutive days. Clinical effect obtained was excellent in 20 cases and good in 4 cases, and clinical efficacy rate was 100%. As side effect, 1 case of rash was observed but the medication could be continued. Slightly abnormal laboratory findings were observed in 6 cases, however they were not considered to be due to DL-8280. MIC of DL-8280 against clinically isolated N. gonorrhoeae was distributed between ≤ 0.006 and 0.20μg/ml. And its MIC was superior to that of NFLX, ABPC and PCG.