There are several assays for detection of antibody of rubella virus. The comparison of the plaque containing neutralization test (NT) and the hemaggulutination test (HAI) was studied in 59 paired sera from school boys and girls, which were obtained during the period of outbrake of rubella, and in the commercially availlable positive and negative sera for the HAI. The results are as follows. 1. Established rabbit kidney cell line (RK-13c, Chiba Serum Inst., Japan) was superior to RK-13F (Flow Co., U. S. A.) for plaque count NT assay to rubella. 2. Optimum plaque formation occured at 30°C. 3. NT titers of the standard sera which contained IgG fraction, were increased by adding guinea pig serum as complement. 4. Straight line, y=x, was obtained when HAI and NT titers on clinical specimens were compared ± 5. Very low levels of antibody were found with NT assay in some specimens in which HAI was below 1: 8.
Detection of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin from fecal specimens of the food poisoning cases were performed by reversed passive hemagglutination (RPHA) technique. A total of 130 fecal specimens from 13 outbreaks which occurred in Tokyo during the period from 1963 through 1978 was used for the test. The enterotoxin was detected from 109 out of 130 specimens. The RPHA titer of the toxin in the feces ranged from 1: 100 to 1: 25, 600. The fecal specimens collected from 1 to 2 days after a food poisoning outbreak were able to detect the toxin, however, 5 days after illness was negative. Nearly, the fecal specimens from which enterotoxin was detected were found to count greater than 106/g of Clostridium perfringens. In contrast, none of the fecal specimens from healthy subjects tested were positive for the toxin. The direct detection of enterotoxin in the feces of patients with the food poisoning would be used as a new epidemiological tool.
Multiplication and distribution of Rickettsla sennetsu in mice spleen were observed sequentially after infection by immunofluorescent antibody technique to obtain a basic information on protection immunity against the rickettsia. The rickettsia was detected within area of white pulp of spleen 3 days after intraperitoneal inocula -tion, and increased rapidly in number. However, its distribution was restricted in the same area until the 5th day. After the 7th day, rickettsial distribution was spread to red pulp. It was suspected that the site of multiplication of the rickettsia was mainly cytoplasm of endothel of capillary or small vessels in white pulp in the early stage and macrophages in red pulp in the late stage. Close correlation between distribution of organisms and characteristic histopathological changes of the spleen of mice was speculated. In the spleen of immune mice, no rickettsial particle was detected throughout the period of observa -tion. It might be concluded that local immune reaction in intraperitoneal cavity is important in pro -tection immunity of mice against R. sennetsu. Marked lymphocytic infiltration was observed in the spleen of immune mice.
A Case of 26-year-old female with primary hilar lymph nodes tuberculosis was reported. She had positive tuberculin reaction after BCG vaccination in early school life. The patient had experienced vague anterior chest pain and fever for three weeks prior to admission. She was admitted to this hospital in May, 1978. The chest X-ray revealed a finding of bilateral hilar lymph nodes swelling. Pathology of the biopsied lymph nodes revealed a young tubercle surrounded by prominent epithelioid cells which was consistent with primary tuberculosis, but calcification was not found. The patient was treated with SM, PAS, and INH, and rapidly recovered soon. It seems that hilar lymph nodes tuberculosis as primary infection with transient positive tuberculin reaction after BCG vaccination is not a rare clinical type of the tuberculosis in recent years. It is perhaps due to the recent reduction of the prevalence of tuberculosis as the results of the improvement of public health and the development of therapy and prophylaxis of the disease in our country.