衛生動物
Online ISSN : 2185-5609
Print ISSN : 0424-7086
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選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
総説
  • 矢部 辰男
    2018 年 69 巻 2 号 p. 41-47
    発行日: 2018/06/25
    公開日: 2018/08/09
    ジャーナル フリー

    The distribution of the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, extends from the subarctic and subantarctic zones to the tropics yet is limited by several factors. I discuss the limiting factors based on surveys in the subarctic zone (Yururi-Moyururi, uninhabited islands in Hokkaido), the temperate zone (a business district in Yokohama and an uninhabited islet, Kaiho-2 in Tokyo Bay), the subtropics (the Hahajima Islands in the Ogasawara Archipelago), and the tropics (Bangkok and Chanthaburi, Thailand). In Yururi-Moyururi, the rats recruited in the group under snow cover and in the summer. In Yokohama, the recruitment peeks fluctuated from year to year. In Kaiho-2, rats stopped recruiting in the winter because of dehydration, and the overwintered group lost body mass as a result of body fat consumption. In Hahajima, rats lost body mass and preyed mainly on plant matter because of chronic dehydration. In cities in Thailand, rats likely thrived by preying on food sources in water systems. I conclude that protein-rich diets and water balance are basic factors in the distribution of the Norway rat, as shown in the results for Kaiho-2 and Hahajima.

原著
  • 佐藤 寛子, 村井 博宜, 石田 晋之介, 藤田 博己, 安藤 匡子, 安藤 秀二
    2018 年 69 巻 2 号 p. 49-54
    発行日: 2018/06/25
    公開日: 2018/08/09
    ジャーナル フリー

    Three human cases of tick bite were examined to investigate the occurrence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia in Akita Prefecture. The first case was a 36-year-old male in 1995 with SFG rickettsiosis-like symptoms, such as fever, rash and eschar, who was strongly suspected of being bitten by an adult tick but the tick species was unidentified. Although the etiology remained undetermined at that time, spotted fever group rickettsia infection was definitely diagnosed based on serological diagnosis in 2015. The second case was a 69-year-old female in 2014, and the third one was a 75-year-old female in 2016. They were bitten by a single female tick of Ixodes monospinosus, with Rickettsia helvetica identified genetically. The ticks of both cases were removed early (within 2 days) after tick bite and the patients were administered minocycline prophylactically. They showed no SFG rickettsiosis-like symptoms. Since a patient of SFG rickettsiosis and two R. helvetica-gene positive ticks have been found in Akita Prefecture, the actual situation should be elucidated to take measures in the future.

  • 平林 公男, 阿部 哲也, 上迫 正人, 小俣 立史, 高橋 弘良
    2018 年 69 巻 2 号 p. 55-60
    発行日: 2018/06/25
    公開日: 2018/08/09
    ジャーナル フリー

    In order to control adult blackflies in the upper reaches of the Ukawa River in Kashiwazaki City, Niigata Prefecture, the present study was conducted on the species composition and densities of adult female blackflies attracted to humans at a total of 22 sites in four areas in the upper reaches of the Ukawa River Basin from June to October in 2013. A total of 2,195 individual adult blackflies were captured from all sampling sites during the investigation periods. The average number of blackflies per site was 11.0 individuals/2 investigators·10 minutes. Noda was the highest capture area where we could collect 13.5 individuals/2 investigators·10 minutes, followed by the Joujou Area. The fewest captures were in the Ukawa Area (8.9 individuals/2 investigators·10 minutes). The dominant species was Simulium (Simulium) arakawae Matsumura, 1915 (397 total individuals, 99.5%), followed by Simulium (Simulium) oitanum (Shiraki, 1935) (2, 0.5%). The daily biting activity of female adult blackflies observed every two hours from 6:00 to 20:00 at four areas on August 10, 2013 peaked at 16:00–18:00 (range from 62.5 to 89.1%, average±S.D. 75.0±11.0%).

  • 木村 悟朗, 望月 香織, 田中 和之, 森崎 比路, 篠塚 浩一, 谷川 力
    2018 年 69 巻 2 号 p. 61-65
    発行日: 2018/06/25
    公開日: 2018/08/09
    ジャーナル フリー

    2017年の夏季に千葉県の機械工場の緑地において,背負式ミスト機を用いてエトフェンプロックスを散布し,ヒトスジシマカAedes albopictus成虫に対する防除効果と非対象生物に及ぼす影響を評価した.ヒトスジシマカ成虫は薬剤散布直後に散布エリアで0個体となった.薬剤散布エリアにおいて,ヒトスジシマカは薬剤散布1日後には捕獲できなかったが,2日後に再び捕獲できた.その後,徐々に捕獲数は増加し,散布20日後には薬剤散布エリアと非散布エリアの全地点でヒトスジシマカ成虫が捕獲された.薬剤散布は非標的生物であるダンゴムシ類に大きな影響を及ぼした.ダンゴムシ類は薬剤散布後に散布エリアで0個体となった.薬剤散布8日後には薬剤散布エリアと非散布エリアの全地点でダンゴムシ類が捕獲された.一方,灯火に飛来する昆虫類に,薬剤散布は大きな影響を及ぼさなかった.本試験の結果から,媒介蚊成虫の対策のための薬剤の処理方法として空間処理は適当であるが,その散布方法は非標的生物にも影響を及ぼすことが明らかとなった.薬剤処理エリアを判断するために,効率的・効果的なモニタリング方法がますます重要となるだろう.

  • Hiromu Kurahashi, Chutharat Samerjai
    2018 年 69 巻 2 号 p. 67-93
    発行日: 2018/06/25
    公開日: 2018/08/09
    ジャーナル フリー

    The collection of Sarcophagidae made by the first author during the surveys on flies of medical and forensic importance in Thailand from 2012 to 2016 is dealt with. A total 31 genera and 86 species of the flesh flies are listed. One new genus Komisca gen. nov. is established for Sarcophaga (s. lat.) nanensis Chaiwang, Sukontason & Sukontason, 2009. One little known species, Burmanomyia aureomarginata (Shinonaga & Tumrasvin, 1979) n. com., is redescribed and illustrated. Revised identification keys to the species of Thai Sarcophagidae are provided to include the new genus and three newly recorded species discovered after the last work (Kurahashi & Chaiwong, 2013). General morphology, terminology and definition are provided for keys and redescription.

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