This paper presents the process of the development of the new slipperiness tester and the performance of it. Based on the concept of a new slipperiness tester reported in part 2, a tester (DRAG TYPE) of which details remained changeable and could be adjusted by the result of the later experiments was first developed. The result of measurement of many surfaces, namely, the pulling load-time curves were analysed to find the physical value which can indicate the degree of slipperiness, and coefficient of slip resistance (C.S.R.) was finally found. C.S.R is defined as Pmax/W; where Pmax is the maximum pulling load, W is the loading weight. Then, the each specification of the tester was able to determined in a certain way as C.S.R corresponds smoothly enough to the subjective slipperiness value on the sensory scale obtained in part 1. Moreover, even in matters of the test on powdery and oily surfaces which were similar to actual dusty and muddy wet ones, the smooth correspondence was also recognized. These results made clear that the newly developed tester can be regarded as appropriate for measuring the slipperiness of actual floors.
It is found that the brittle fracture characteristics of steel bars for concrete reinforcement have close correlations with Charpy impact characteristics, then the Charpy impact tests are useful for the brittle fracture evaluation of steel bars. In this paper, the Charpy impact tests of the various materials of steel bars, including blast furnace bars and electric furnace bars, are conducted. Moreover, chemical components and microstructures of the bars are investigated. Then the effects of the various factors on Charpy impact characteristics are investigated by the multiple linear regression. Finally, estimation methods of Charpy impact characteristics of steel bars are proposed.
One of the factors that effect the strength characteristics of gas pressure welded joints of reinforcing steel bars at low temperatures is metallurgical brittleness of the welds. On the other hand, notches are formed at the bulge due to contraction of knot interval on the process of gas pressure welding, and then the brittle fractures are easy to occur by stress concentration at the notches. In this paper metallurgical properties at the heat affected zone by the thermal cycle have been investigatedfirstly. In the next place the brittle fracture initiation characteristics at the heat affected zone have been investigated by the tensile tests using the circumferentially notched specimens. As a result the effect of normalizing in order to improve the low temperature toughness has been confirmed. The results are summarized as follows; (1) Brittle fracture initiation temperature, Ti, of the circumferentially notched specimen normalized adequately is about 65℃ lower than that of the specimen as welded. (2) Adequate temperature that grain refining occurs at the welds is about 900℃. (3) Crystality transition temperature, v_T_<rs>, that correlates the brittle fracture initiation temperature of circumferentially notched specimen has a close correlation with the Vickers hardness, Hv, at every material. This correlation is available to confirm normalizing of the joints at the job sites.
For the rigid-joint laced column, the estimation method using the continuum analogy for the in-plane elastic buckling load is proposed using the effective strength and effective rigidity. The buckling load obtained by the present continuum method is compared with the result of finite displacement analysis. Main conclusions are as follows.1) For the laced column without coupling terms, for example the column of X-type webs, the elastic buckling load is determined by the lower value of the effective strength by member buckling and the general buckling load. On the elastic buckling, the domain of structural property is clearly divided into two parts. One part is for member buckling, the other is for general buckling.2) For the column of N-type webs with coupling terms of stretching and shearing, the buckling load by the continuum analogy is determined from the intersection point of the effective strength and equilibrium path.3) For the laced columns of N-type weds and X-type webs, the validity of present methods is verified by the comparison with the result of the finite displacement method.
Statistical representations and modeling of earthquake load used in developing LRFD criterion are presented. The first and second order statistics on peak ground velocity and acceleration, and response spectra, such as normalized elastic velocity (accel.) spectra, cumulative plastic deformation spectra and ductility spectra are surveyed on the basis of available regression formulas and response analysis data by artificial earthquake emsenble.
Cantilevered cylindrical shells subjected to a transverse shearing force at its tip have the possibility that two types of buckling such as the shear buckling and the local buckling, which appears at the lower part of the shell, may occur. The purpose of the paper is to present an analytical method for the local buckling in consideration of ovalisation of the circular cross section. Even though the axial stresses are a maximum at the supports, the local buckling appears in the lower part apart from the support. The reason, which is adopted in the paper, is that non-circular cross section after ovalisation provides the larger local radius of curvature which decreases the critical stress for the local buckling. The paper is consisted of (1) Objective of the paper, (2) Ovalisation and Load-Displacement Relation, (3) Criterion for Local Buckling, (4) Numerical Analyses and (5) Conclusion. In the section 4, numerical results of the buckling load, the magnitude of ovalisation, the position of the occurrence of buckling, etc. are shown in figures for cylinders with the length-radius rations from 5 to 10 as well as with the thickness-radius ratios from 100 to 1000.
In this paper, the authers have dealed with the energy response of steel structures subjected to a severe earthquake and have proposed a consept of instantaneous damage energy w_d. It is shown that the w_d value is advantageous in evaluating the nonstationary energy input of intense earthquake, and has a good correlation with parameters such as the maximum velocity and the maximum ductility.
Sentence intelligibility in Japanese was tested in exponentially decaying or increasing echo and steady state disturbing noise conditions. The test items are sentences which are presented at condition of four echoes and in random noise that has spectrums simulated cheering yell. The noise and speech signals were presented to the listners from duplex speakers in an anechoic chamber. The following echo and noise conditions were used : echo numbers of 4 include the direct sound; echo durations of 60 to 190 msec ; echo decay rate of -6 to 6 dB per each echoes; noise levels of -10 to 0 dB RE speech level. Method of predicting sentence intelligibility in echoes is proposed, and evaluated in terms of the testing results. The method which proposed here assumes that the value of syllable articulation in a real field would be the same as what would be calculated were the disturbing echo energy replaced by equivalent noise. Three combinations of the following calculated syllable articulation in echoes were considered : Svv of vowel is interfered by echo vowels ; Scv of consonant is interfered by echo vowels; Scc of consonant is interfered by echo consonants. Modelled ten CV syllables, composed of two phrase and one pause, were used in this predicting method to calculate the articulation index. The articulation index computed by 1/1 octave band method of K. D. Kryter [J. Acous. Soc. Am. Vol.34, 1689-1697 (1962)]. Sentence intelligibility was obtained by multiple regression analysys between measured data and computed intelligibility which is converted from syllable artuculation by using the relation between articulation index and speech intelligibility. There were high correlation between the results obtained in anechoic chamber and proposed predicting method, 0.9853 of the coefficient of correlation was obtained by multiple regression analysys.
In this paper, we extend our investigation of the reasonable number of sanitary fixtures in schools which we had mentioned in our previous paper. The contents are as follows : 1. Investigating the children's behaviour using lavatories in a kindergarten and an elementary school, we analysed the distributions of using-times, using-frequencies and simultaneous uses of sanitary fixtures. 2. Simulation method was applied for the calculation of the number of sanitary fixtures, therefore we analysed several arrival distributions at the lavatories in recesses of ten minutes between lessons, and suggested one of the arrival distribution models. 3. In addition to the above-mentioned arrival distribution, we suggested several conditions for the calculation which included not only the using-times and the using-frequencies but also the three levels of maximum waiting time as the evaluating index for the decision of the reasonable number. 4. As the results of the calculation, we showed the reasonable number of urinal for male and that of closet for female in elementary, junior high and senior high schools in each of three levels.
The purpose of the present study is to reveal the visual effects of scenes when the building positioning types and heights in housing estates are progressively changed. Considering building positioning types in housing estates, 73 small scale models were produced and 423 viewing points within these spaces were evaluated using eight semantic bipolar scales. To observe the models as if from standing height, a fiber scope was adopted. First, the resulting values were subjected to Factor Analysis. Using Factor Scores, each viewing point within 14 progressively changing positioning patterns, and 14 progressively changing height patterns were then plotted in a semantic space composed of the three dimensions : Pleasantness, Potency and Unity. Second, the viewing points were configured to two dimensional space by Multidimensional Scaling, and their relations were investigated. As a result of these anlyses, the influence on visual effects of changes of building lengths, the space width between buildings, building configulations, angular relationships between buildings and building heights were made clear.
This paper describes the results of investigations and analysis of scheme design activities and proposes the structural model which explains how practical design processes are generated. These investigations have been done with view to know if the systematic design process which proposed from 1968 to 1970 in Japan could be generally applied to practical design activities. Several new facts about practical process were found. First of those facts is that there are various process types in practical design activities, although any proposed process has only one type. The diversity of process suggests the flexiblity of practical design activities. Second is the difference of frequency which each process-unit emerged in practical processes. And in any case the process-unit so called "drawing" is indispensable so that process type 〓IDF〓 becomes the foundamental one which all other types are derived from. Third is the general trend of derivation that with the process division progresses, the lower priority processunit derived except for the "scheduling". And practically the systematic process is vary rare because of having maxium process divisions and always including the exceptional "scheduling". On these facts the derivation model of design process could be built which showed the basic difference between the systematic process and the practical ones and explained the rationality of practical design processes.
The objective of the study is to analyze the characteristics of inpatients' movability both in ordinary and emergent stituation, in order to provide essential data contributing to various stages of ward planning in general hospitals. The information was obtained from the surveys which were carried out in 114 wards of 7 general hospitals in Japan. Each of 4, 270 inpatients was examined in terms of 10 attributes of patients, i. e. age, sex, length of stay in hospital, speciality asigned, main diagnosed disease, number of days after being operated, extent of necessity of both nursing care and observation, degree of movability in both ordinary and emergent situation. The process of analyzing the obtained data is twofold. The one is simple cross analysis, the other is discriminant analysis utilizing theory of quantification (II). The results of the analysis are abstracted as follows : 1) In the surveys, each patient's ability was judged and classified into 8 categories in emergent circumstances and 4 in ordinary cases. However, three principal categories, i. e. "movable", "assisted movable" and "immovable", in the case of emergent situation are defined as significant from statistical point of view, while, in the case of ordinary situation, two categories, i. e. "ambulant" and "badfast", are regarded as significant. 2) The most influencial factor to categorizing patients' movablity in both ordinary and emergent situation is the index of the need of "nursing observation". Only in the ordinary situation, the index of "age" can be found as the second influential factor.
In the customary way of studies on children's play-environment, meanings of places for children tended to be made light of. In this study, I made an attempt to distinguish various play-places by considering the significant relation between children at play and the places in many play-activities. As a result, we can find 10 or 15 types in various play-places. Each of them has different signification from the others. They will be one of basic frameworks to grasp children's actual play-places from their standpoint.
Sur la relation entre les peintures modernes et l'Architecture, N. Pevsner, S. Giedion et L. Benevolo l'ont indique dans Ieur ecrits, "Pioneers of Modern Design", "Space, Time and Architecture" et "Storia dell'Architettura Moderna". Ici, ce qui est vise, c'est la question plus etroite entre les peintures et l'Architecture chez le meme Architect, LE CORBUSIER, d'autant que cela produit une pensee architecturale de l'AGE MODERNE. De sorte que ce sujet nous demande l'interpretation des peintures chez LE, CORBUSIER, ce qui est important, donc, c'est, d'abord, la difference entre les deux Peintres, OZENFANT et LE CORBUSIER (JEANNERET). Car, on pourrait y examiner une possibilite qui atteint la pensee architecturale de l'AGE MODERNE. En resume de ce petit ouvrage, on peut dire que OZENFANT a dessine la figure d'une nature morte sans poids, d'ailleurs, JEANNERET LE CORBUSIER a essaye de unir chaque nature morte, independamment dessinee, qui porte le poids, dans une mecanique. Il serait donc possible d'indiquer l'existence ontologique de chaque nature morte et, en meme temps, une notion dynamique qui l'unit. Dans ce canal, JEANNERET LE CORBUSIER a produit une notion de "Champ dynamique", qui deviendra le vocabulaire architectural chez lui.
The present paper discusses about K. F. Schinkel in relation to the Rundbogen (round arch) style, which was popularized from 1830's to 1840's in Germany and adopted by Schinkel earlier than any other architects. The Molkenhaus (1801-3) was the first example of this style but the architectural plans of Schinkel which are analysed in this paper are limited from 1810 when he entered the architectural bureau to 1826 of his english travel as follows : I. Petrikirche (1810), II. Neue Wache (1816), III. Friedrich Werdersche Kirche (1824), IV. Hamburger Stadttheater (1825), and V. Nikolaikirche (1826). To synthesize the two styles opposing each other, namely the classical and the medieval, was the Schinkel's architectural thought. He used the Rundbogen as a motif of the Middle Ages of which the Petrikirche was the first example. In the Neue Wache several styles were mixed. The Rundbogen appeared in the facade of the Friedrich Werdersche Kirche as a big archivolt to indicate the internal construction by the transverse arches. This tendency is more evident in the Hamburger Stadttheater and the Nikolaikirche; the former has a number of the Rundbogen-windows, while the latter has internal archivolts reflecting the external design. It is true that in the 1810's Schinkel was much inclined for the Gothic, but he used the Rundbogen in parallel. It seems important that the creation of a new style through a synthesis of styles was vital in his architectural thought and the Rundbgen was the most appropriate motif in realizing it. Thus, Schinkel's Rundbogen-architecture appeared at the beginning of 19th century and this architectural concept was firmly established by 1810.
The British Consulate, as the author had studied in the preceding paper, built in 1863 and destroyed by fire in 1865, was a building consisting of a main one-storeyed square block with a court, and two two-storeyed pavilions projecting at front. A front gateway-actually designed copying the Japanese style gateway of the upper class warrior's residence-directly led to a cloister-like corridor arround the court, which in turn connected each room. The original drawings of plan show a high masonry staircase ascending to the gateway, that suggests the main block might have been laid on a raised platform and the two projecting pavilions on the lower ground, and, as a result, built two-storeyed. This conjecture accords with the actual shape of the site. Several features of the building can be reconstructed by surveying the documents of correspondence between British and Japanese officers; plastered wall, sizes and types of windows, glazed and hinged, and with outside shutters painted green, and so on. Samely, of inside of the building something can be conjectured; wall paper with patterns of hollyhock and paulownia leaves, and chrysanthemum flowers, and accommodations of large masonry stoves. Soon after the destruction in 1865, rebuilding of the Consulate was planned and a French architect H. Clipet, who stayed in Yokohama for the French Embassy, was commissioned. His design was, however, never executed because it could not be afforded by the Japanese (Shogunate) government which was right to collapse in 1867.