Neuropsychological rehabilitation is concerned with enabling people with cognitive, emotional or behavioural difficulties after brain injury to achieve their maximum potential in the domains of psychological, social, vocational, leisure and everyday functioning. This paper will trace, from a Western perspective, the origins of the influences that have shaped contemporary practice in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Although the impact of injury to the brain on mental functions was described some 3000 years ago by the ancient Egyptians, it was not until the 20th Century that systematic approaches to rehabilitating people with brain injury emerged. Wars between nations have been important in stimulating the development of rehabilitation, particularly because of the large numbers of soldiers with brain injuries. The contributions of key practitioners such as Goldstein, Zangwill and Luria will be discussed. These ʻgrandfathersʼ of neuropsychological rehabilitation have directly influenced contemporary practitioners such as Ben Yishay, Prigatano, Christensen and Wilson who have developed the techniques that we use today. Contemporary holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation practice will be described, illustrating both the historical influences, but also the new developments that continue to transform practice to better meet the needs of people with brain injury.