Japanese Sociological Review
Online ISSN : 1884-2755
Print ISSN : 0021-5414
ISSN-L : 0021-5414
Volume 56 , Issue 1
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 2-15
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 16-19
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Manabu AKAGAWA
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 20-37
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    “Gender equality will raise the total fertility rate (TFR).” This is the most dominant discourse on fertility these days. In this paper, I criticize such discourses and statistics, using research literacy methods.
    First of all, according to an international comparison among OECD countries, there seems to be a strong positive correlation coefficient between the rate of female labor participation, the amount of public expenditure toward children, and TFR. The samples are, however, often selected in some arbitrary ways. In fact, there is no correlation.
    Secondly, based on JGSS2001 data, I find that the sharing of domestic labor by husbands cannot increase the number of children. Thirdly, “gender equal” couples (double-income couples, of which husbands do domestic labor a lot) have less children and earn higher income than other types of couples. Due to the Difference Principle, there is no reason to support them.
    Fourthly, I propose the Japanese government provides “child allowance” to all children under 18 years old equally. It is based not on the theory of the “child care free rider, ” but on the child's right to live. The present public nursery service gives priority to double-income couples. It is unfair because of the unequal accessibility to the service by the parents' lifestyles and income. If the public nursery service cannot solve such inequality, then it must be privatized.
    Finally, the financial costs of “child allowance” must be shared by all citizens over 30 years old. I suppose there are three options to generate these costs. The priority will be as follows : cutting a part of the pension plan for child allowance; increasing the consumption tax; and increasing the income tax. This political strategy will be able to solve the unequal freedom of choice under the present child care support system, and can improve the imbalance in benefits of and contributions to the pension system among generations.
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  • Akihide INABA
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 38-54
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is well known that not only the increase of both unmarried and the married late in life, but also the lowering of marital fertility is the cause of below-replacement fertility in Japan. This paper aims to examine the ways and processes that family factors affect this lowering of marital fertility.
    At first, I specify the three main hypotheses described in previous studies : socioeconomic causation hypothesis, value and attitude causation hypothesis, and gender causation hypothesis. I examine the logical relation among these three hypotheses, and show the logical importance of preference changes in child numbers by using the Boolean approach.
    Next, I show that neither the findings of previous empirical studies nor the results of the Japanese National Fertility Survey support the gender causation hypothesis. Rather, it is suggested that the lowering of marital fertility might be explained by the changes in people's preferences to control the numbers of children for the pursuit of their wellbeing.
    Third, using the NFRJ98 data, I analyze the family role overload feeling among married women who have babies and infants. These analyses do not support the gender hypothesis. The sexual division of labor is apparent in this life stage, but their feeling of a family role overload is very low. It is suggested that because tasks are not shared between husbands and wives, but rather shared among social networks members including close relatives, the gender causation hypothesis is not supported. It seems more plausible that the lowering of marital fertility is induced by the pursuit of children's well-being along with the traditional sexual division of labor within the family, rather than the products of some new changes in the family.
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  • Nobuhiko MAEDA
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 55-73
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Japan's population is aging at an alarming rate, which is having a tremendous impact on the current employment system. This paper defines the post-retirement life stage as the second career-development period, ranging from the middle-aged years to the senior years. During this latter half of their lives, people are actively committed to developing their careers. This paper analyzes the varied views of the senior-age group in regard to their lifestyles and career development. The analysis has identified three conclusions. Firstly, in spite of the economic slowdown in the 1990s, those in the middle-to senior-age group regard their post-retirement lifestyles favorably, thus advancing a new post-retirement culture. Secondly, their post-retirement careers are varied, ranging from participation in volunteer activities to the establishment of new businesses. Thirdly, those who intend to become involved in volunteer activities or to establish new businesses after retirement, instead of continuing to work for the company they are currently working for, start to search out new contacts with people outside the company ahead of their retirement date. In other words, some of those in the group stop being company-first employees before they retire. Based on these findings, this paper examines the varied post-retirement career development and active aging of the middle-to senior-age group.
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  • Sawako SHIRAHASE
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 74-92
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent of income inequality and the pattern of providing support to mothers in contemporary Japan. The extent of income inequality among households with the elderly aged 65 and over has expanded between 1986 and 1995, and has declined recently. The main reason why such a recent decline in income inequality has occurred was due to the decrease in income inequality in couple-only households whose number has most increased between 1986 and 1998. While the relative difference in the average disposable income between single female households and couple-only households became small during these years, the single households of the elderly female are substantially at a disadvantage in their economic well-being.
    The type of the household was an important determinant in providing economic support to their own mothers. Married daughters are likely to provide economic support when they co-habit with their mothers or when their mothers live alone. On the other hand, in offering economic support to their mothers-in-law, whether their husbands were the eldest son was critical. When their husbands were the eldest son, married women tended to support their mothers-in-law economically. The household type in which their mothers-in-law lived was not significant in determining the economic support to them. The social norm of being the eldest son still had a substantial impact on providing economic support and care to mothers-in-law.
    The household is one of the important factors in explaining social inequality among the elderly. On the other hand, the significant change in the household structure has occurred : the number of multi-generational households has declined and the number of elderly single households and elderly couple-only households has increased. How we can reconstruct the welfare state in which the economic and social well-being of the elderly is basically guaranteed no matter which households they belong to is one of the important socio-political issues to discuss.
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  • Isamu KANEKO
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 93-111
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: April 23, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is difficult to give priority to resource allocation over elderly people in Japanese society with a declining birthrate. It is because the social system lapses into malfunction if it remains as it is. Then, it becomes important to devise the method of defining the total society correctly, raising the aggregate power, and tackling the decrease in the birthrate.
    The valuation basis of a social design comprises the clarity of thought, the logical nature of a statement, and the factual correctness and factual novelty that were observed. Based on these, the community research result using the concept of social cohesion is used here.
    In this comparative study, social cohesion was operationally divided into aspects of social relations and consciousness of freedom, and each aspect was examined. When based on “the observed facts, ” it became clear that the level of social cohesion correlates to communities with a high total fertility rate.
    Through researching aged communities with a declining birthrate, contemporary sociology in the 21st century will rediscover the problem of social cohesion, and will be innovated.
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  • Satomi ERA
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 112-128
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In production processes, two kinds of flexibility have been pursued in parallel from the 1980s. One is “functional flexibility, ” which leads to “re-skilling” processes, and the other is “numerical flexibility, ” which means organizational rationalizations such as outsourcing and the sub-contracting system. Through continuous argument in labor research, the question of how to evaluate the transformation of autonomy in “re-skilling” processes remains controversial. Critical analyses recognize such “autonomy” as an alternative pattern of management against or among workers. However, recent discussions demand us to integrate the debate between skill and organizational formations and to address the fundamental question of social systems.
    In this paper, I examine the social foundation of skills in discussing the skill reproduction dilemma in the housing industry. In Japan, large housing companies have promoted industrialization of small timber-framed building construction while incorporating small local contractors, which traditionally consist of a few carpenters and apprentices, as their sub-contracting firms. In recent years, in addition to the prefabrication method, these companies also started to engage in traditional construction method where local contractors take all the responsibilities of the production processes. This vertical integration causes fragmentation and standardization of labor processes, cut-down of production schedule, significant reduction of contracting prices, and so on. As a result, the apprentice system is no longer sustainable on site. Although large housing companies and trade unions have tried to establish new training institutions, neither of them has proved to be successfully functional as a sufficiently independent system. I argue that the pursuit of the two kinds of flexibility does not necessarily ensure the social foundation of skills and add that the difficulty of skill-reproduction also indicates to us the need to reconsider the concepts of skills and control beyond labor processes.
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  • Kanako AKAEDA
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 129-146
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: April 23, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An intimate relationship between the same sex is often seen as homosexual love, or just as friendship. That tendency which uses “homosexuality or friendship” model is based on a simplistic dichotomy, while female intimacy has been thought as having more successive dimensions with respect to maternal affection or friendship itself. In modern society, where the separation between the public and the private should be discernable, intimacy may be put into the private sphere. Furthermore, it has been argued that the private sphere was formed by “romantic love ideology” which consists of the trinity of sex, love, and marriage. However, maternity and female intimate relationships were not always harmonized. This is typically realized when asking whether “plastic sexuality, ” which is free from reproduction and located at the center of romantic love, was practiced by women. In modern Japan, intimate relationships among students at girls' schools have been addressed using the viewpoint of a “morally correct” friendship or “deviant” homosexuality, but their practice of intimacy should be recognized as a form of romantic love. Such an intimacy was accepted as one of the steps toward sound growth, but on the contrary, it was classified as “deviant” after their leave from school, and also seen as incompatible with maternity. Such a viewpoint finally led to the stereotyped notion of the “old miss.”
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  • Yasushi MATSUMOTO
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 147-164
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ever since Claude Fischer predicted the rise of friendship in cities in his “subcultural theory, ” many surveys on urbanism and friendship were conducted in Japan. Yet the results were mixed. This article addresses the empirical and theoretical issues on urbanism and friendship by analyzing the data of Nagoya Metropolitan Survey conducted in 2000. The results of the analysis show that, on the contrary to “the rise of friendship” hypothesis, the number of friends decreased with increased urbanism, mainly for those who had grown up in the region, because of the decline of local peer groups in the urban areas. Nevertheless, the more urban the area, the more middle-distance friends they had. The number of long-distance friends, on the other hand, was not affected by urbanism but by the respondent's history of residential mobility. The fact that many empirical associations are conditioned by residential history supports the “structuration” model of social networks, instead of the “choice-constraint” one, since the former emphasizes that the geographic distribution of relational resources is varied by one's history of residential mobility and that the reproduction of friendship is affected by urbanism as far as he or she has a lot of relational resources in the metropolitan area. Further, it is speculated that, on the macro level, while social networks within the metropolis may have been scarce in the earlier stage of urbanization due to the great share of immigrants, middle-distance friendship networks may flourish after one generation due to the increasing number of those who grew up in the region. Thus, this study brings temporal and spatial perspective into the theory of urbanism.
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  • Yuko OGASAWARA
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 165-181
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Existing literature on dual-earning focuses more on the sharing of household responsibilities and less on the sharing of the provider role. Employment often is not distinguished from providing, and the meaning of work has not been examined in detail. Interviews with husbands and wives of full-time working couples reveal that even among couples where both spouses are continuously employed, wives' commitment to co-providing and husbands' expectations of their wives' commitment vary. Couples with husbands who do not count on their wives to earn income and wives who are not committed to work put priority on husbands' careers and consider it up to the wives to combine work and family. However, among couples that expect to be joint earners, both husbands and wives make adjustments to determine how they work in order to sustain each other's careers. Husbands of such couples are thus constrained but also gain some freedom that the husbands who shoulder the burden of providing singlehandedly do not enjoy. The joint-earner couples, in contradistinction to the more traditional husbands and wives, often seek lifestyles less wedded to the company. The research suggests that in certain sections of the Japanese society, couples are beginning to choose their preferred work and lifestyles.
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  • Masayoshi MUTO
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 182-199
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether ethical norms can realize Pareto-efficient states in any two-person interactions. I define ethical norms as shared evaluations of one's own and the other's objective payoffs. Norms include altruism, egalitarianism, and egoism, etc.
    I assume that each actor chooses an action based on “the evaluation matrix” (subjective interpretations of the situation). An ethical norm transforms the original objective payoffs into a subjective evaluation. We call this frame “the two-level game modeling.” Pure Nash equilibria on the evaluation matrix may be realized as constant states. Therefore, the research question here is to investigate whether an ethical norm transforms Pareto-efficient actions on any games into pure Nash equilibria on the evaluation matrix.
    I show that (i) such norms do exist and they satisfy “impartiality” and “altruism, ” (ii) such norms are linear combinations of “maximax” and “maximin, ” and (iii) norms with overestimating equality are excluded.
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  • Takeshi HIEJIMA
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 200-213
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: April 23, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article examines the relation between ready-made clothes and bodies.
    Ready-made clothes have spread widely since the 1960s in Japan, and this brought a big change in the relation between clothes and bodies. Ready-made clothes are made according to “size standards, ” which are based on the measured data of various bodies. Therefore, there is a possibility that a particular piece of clothing may not fit a certain body. People that wear ready-made clothes see these clothes with “other bodies.” In conclusion, the relation between clothes and bodies varied from “making clothes that fit bodies” to “making bodies that is fitted clothes.”
    The first part of this article (the first, second, third chapters) describes the change in industries that manufacture ready-made clothes. The last (the forth and fifth chapters) describes the influences on the people that wear ready-made clothes.
    Further research on this type of relation between clothes and bodies would clarify the cultural history of the human body.
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  • [in Japanese]
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 214-216
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: April 23, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 217-231
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: October 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    2005 Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 232-247
    Published: June 30, 2005
    Released: April 23, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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