The author clarified the characteristics of the Tsurumi River Flood Prevention Cooperative, located in urbanized area in the middle and lower reaches of a small river, judging from the standpoints of imposing on the expense. But she has not referred to those of cooperatives located in agricultural area in the lower reaches of a large river. Then she intended to clarify the characteristics of the Johgoh Flood Prevention Cooperative located in the lower reaches of the Shinano River from the view points of analyzing cooperative rules and Its system of determining the membership fee. As a result of analyzing its rules, it was revealed that the Johgoh Flood Prevention Cooperative bore a close parallel to regular water use cooperatives, and that it has an obligation to bear the expense of river improvement works of Shinkawa Drainage Regular Water Use Cooperative. As a result of analyzing its system of determining the membership fee, it was revealed that frequently inundated arears nearby intake works of drainage rivers are highly imposed. On the contrary less inundated areas nearby irrigation rivers situated at comparatively high ground are less imposed. Consequently the frequency of inundation caused by shortage of irrigation water prescribes the grades of imposition. The reasons are as follows: first the difference between regular water use cooperatives which aimed for irrigation and flood prevention cooperatives which aimed for flood controll cannot be definitely clarified yet. Because irrigation and drainage are not separated in the low and marshy area under study. Second, when prefectural river improvement works came into operation in the study area after the enforcement of Water Act, the Johgoh Flood Prevention Cooperative was established as the one to bear local expenses allocated for the works. It could get higher rate of prefectural subsidy and bigger authority than regular water use cooperative. Therefore, the Johgoh Flood Prevention Cooperative with such given financial aid and authority has accomplished the river improvement works of itself and the improvement works which the Shinkawa Drainage Regular Water Use Cooperative was supposed to accomplish. And this put an end to the troubles in connection with drainage between two cooperatives for long years.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes in regional structure based on socio-economic chracteristics in the Tokyo metropolitan area by using multivariate analysis. The authors used the same method as Saitoh (1982). The method of the study is as follows: The factor analysis is applied to the date matrix of 1985, which contains 299 municipal districts in columns and 58 variables in rows. These fifty-eight variables refer to socio-econmic characterisitics of municipal district such as, household, age structure, population change, industrial structure, density of establishment by industry, educational level, housing conditions and so on (Table 1). The Ward's cluster analysis is applied to the standardized scores of the seven common factors. The authors intended to make a comparison the findings with those of 1975 which were investigated by Saitoh(1982). The main results are summarized as follows: 1) The first factor which explains about 38 per cent of the total variance is interpreted as the agglomeration of the tertiary industries such as commercial activities and financial activities (Table 2). The second factor (explained 15 per cent) is interpreted as the white collar residence. The loading value of each variable for the first factor in 1985 shows a similar tendency to that of the second factor in 1975 (Table 2). The same may be said of the second factor in 1985 and the first factor in 1975. Therefore, in can be considered that the order of the two main factors hasbeen reversed between 1975 and 1985 (Table 5). 2) The spatial distribution of standardized factor score for the agglomeration of the tertiary industries shows a distinct distant-decay pattern, that is, a concentric zone pattern (Fig. 1 and Table 3). It is recognized that the districts showing the highest positive scores of this factor have expanded to the area adjacent to the Tokyo CBD. 3) The spatial distributions of factor score for the white collar residence in 1975 and 1985 reveal that the districts showing the highest positive scores have shifted from the zone 10-20 km away to the zone 20-40 km away, especially to the zone in western and southern sectors of the Tokyo metropolitan area (Fig. 2) 4) The authors did not recognize the changes in the concentric zone structure and the sectoral structure which were the basic frameworks of the regional structure based on socio-economic chracteristics in the Tokyo metropolitan area, notwithstanding the above changes (Fig 5).
Recently, a plenty of Land Improvement District (L. I. D) in Japan have started to manage the new water-use facilities after finishing the integrated land improvement project. One of the problems they have is to switch over to new water management system as renew of water-use facility. Water management system has been formed under the influence of regional character for a long time. Therefore, it is important to base upon the existing water management system, when the new water management system is planned. The purpose of this paper is to make clear the existing water management system in pond-prominent area, focusing upon water manager's behavior. The results of the investigation are as follows; The study area, Kako, is located in the Kako plateau in Hyogo Prefecture. In Kako, water management is kept by special water managers. No one can touch the water-use facilities except water managers. There are two types of water managers. One of them is 'Ikemori' who manages all-round water-use in Kako. Ikemori is only one person. He is engaged in all the year round. The other is 'Mizuire' who is specialized in distributing water. There are one or more 'Mizuire' in each water-use block (14 block). They are engaged in only irrigation period (100 days). Saving of water resource and equal water management have been by the water managers, taking their planning ability and skill for distributing water. Now, Kako L.I.D. has many problems (i. e. decrease of water source, becoming weakened the water management system and responding changed area for urbanization etc.). Toban water-use project and Inami land improvement project will be finished soon. Then, the foundation of water-use in Kako is going to be improved. But the water source continues to depend upon other area. It is necessary to keep saved water management system after finishing those projects. It is important to take this point into consideration as to planning the new water management system.