The land reclamation project of Lake Nakaumi started in 1955. This project has two purposes. One is to reclaim five blocks (2,542 hectares) of agricultual land from Lake Nakaumi. The Honjo block with about 1,700 hectares is the largest of the five. The other is to alter the two brackish lakes, Lake Nakaumi and Lake Shinji, into freshwater lakes for agricultual water supply. Local environmental movements started to oppose the project and became so strong that it had to be suspended in 1988. The conversion into freshwater lakes was actually stopped. But a part of the project, the reclamation of the Honjo block, was not stopped. The Administration made three plans to resume the project in quick succession until the end of 1995. Now a conprehensive survey is carried on. In 1988, when the Administration decided to stop making freshwater lakes indefinitely, the project lost its overall concept. The reclamation of the Honjo block was treated as a separate project. This made the plan inconsistent and created new opposition movements. There exists a gap between the "official" concerned groups that are identified in the plan and the people concerned in reality. And this is one of the defects of the planning process. There are two opposing visions about the Honjo block in Lake Nakaumi. One is the opinion of the Administration and the local economic circles. They consider the new land of Honjo block as a base to create a new urban core in the San-in region. The other is the opinion of the opponents. They consider Honjo block as an indispensable part of Lake Nakaumi, which was rich in brackish fish and shellfish before the original project started. The environmental movements show another vision of lake use and an alternative way of regional developement. They have never opposed the project only to oppose the Administration. Local environmental movements cannot directly change the planning system of regional development in Japan. But they play an uninstitutional role in making up the defects of the planning system. They can disclose various informations about a project, assess the effects on the environment and propose an alternative way of regional development. But this role is not sufficiently recognized and these movements are not institutionally integrated in the planning system at all.
This paper identifies attributes of the newcomers from other prefectures and reveals some of the processes and characteristics of their spatial movement. The results of research can be summarized as follows: 1. Newcomers are classified into two types. Type I newcomers are those who repeatedly travel to Zamami Village in order to work there as temporary employees in the diving-service industry and for private concerns. Type II newcomers are those who reside permanently in Zamami Village to become managers of the diving-service industry, and females who marry residents of Zamami Village. 2. As for Type I newcomers, females account for 59 percent. And 81 percents of them are in the age range of 20 to 29. Additionally, most of them migrated from metropolitan areas such Tokyo, Kanagawa and Osaka. The main motives are "yearning after the blue marine waters" and "to enjoy the simple life-style of islands in Okinawa which could not be experienced in their homelands in mainland Japan." 3. As for Type II, the diving-service managers of newcomers can be classified into two groups. The first groups started in the diving-service before 1990. At that time, scuba-diving was not a popular marine sports in Japan, and therefore their early-on experience rarely enabled them to be employed by scuba-diving companies. By contrast, the second groups started diving-service after 1990, they became employed diving instructors or management positions immediately. 4. A mainland Japanese female who marries in Zamami village is called Yamato yome. The number of them has increased every year, especially after 1990. A questionnaire survey revealed that most of them formerly lived in a metropolitan area and, having come to the islands, were inclined to marry simply because they were thoroughly impressed by the wonderful natural environment of Zamami Village.