In order to clarify the relationship between air temperature distribution and house density, for the late evening, early morning and daytime, mobile observation using car installed thermistor thermometer was carried out 20 times from January 1 to August 29 in 1994. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The area of the highest temperature was found in the vicinity of Toyohashi Station, the central part of Toyohashi City. The area of cool temperature was distributed outside the city except the western suburbs facing the Mikawa Bay coast. (2) The heat island was formed more strikingly under the condition with strong surface inversion than without inversion. (3) When the prevailing wind velocity was 1.1 to 3.0 m/sec, the warmest part in the temperature distribution sifted slightly leeward. With the wind velocity of more than 6.1 m/sec, there was no temperature difference in and outside the city. (4) The relationship between the city temperature and the house density, an indicator of human activity, was examined in accordance with the prevailing wind. It was made clear that regional differences in the temperature distribution were mainly caused by the prevailing wind direction; namely the region is located whether the windward or leeward sector of the central part of the city. The regression equations between the house density and the temperature anomaly from areal average at every observation point are similar in early morning and late evening.
The recent transformation of Japanese industrial structure can be characterized by the remarkable growth in service industry, in particular producer services. The producer services are concentrated into large cities, especially, in the Tokyo metropolitan area at a national scale. Similarly, the concentration of producer services are recognized in regional metropolises at a regional scale and in prefectural capitals at a prefectural scale, respectively. It has been pointed out that the agglomeration of producer services would have become a key factor of urban growth. Therefore, I examine the location of producer services to understand the differences in growth among the Japanese cities. Some of producer services have been developed as parts of management functions of the firms. Recently those services have been externalized from management functions; this institutional division would be a crucial factor of the rapid development of producer services. Therefore, it is considered that producer services would function as a part of economic management. This article attempts to clarify the structural change of Japanese urban systems through the examination of the location of producer services, and to investigate their change through analyzing the data in the Establishment Census, 1981-1991. The findings are summarized as follows: 1. Producer services have been concentrated in Tokyo at a national scale. Tokyo Metropolitan Area had more than one-third of the total number of employee in this industry. 2. Similar concentrations of producer services in regional cities are observed at a regional scale and prefectural capitals in the Tohoku region, which is used as a case study region in this paper. However, the process of concentration of producer services is different among regions. In Yamagata prefecture, it is not clear that producer services concentrate into prefectural capital. The concentration in prefectural capitals are not simplified and generalized. 3. There are large disparities among hierarchies in urban system in the agglomeration and function of producer services. The spatial pattern of producer services has corresponded with the hierarchy of cities.
The canal is situated about 60 kilometers northeast of Guilin, one of the famous sight seeing place in Kiangsi province. The upper streams of Luoging Jiang and Xing Jiang flow side by side, but oppositly near Xiangan, namely the former goes down southward through Guilin to Xi Jiang, and the later northward into Donjing lake and to Chang Jian. Shin Aung Ti sent his troop to south China and unified the country in B.C. 221, but suffering transport of munitions of war through mountain jungle, he ordered Shi Lu to excavate canal, and in B.C. 219 it was accomplished. The details of shi plan is unknown. But perhaps he decided the canal site, devised Howshi (plow share shaped instrument of dividing stream) and overflow dyke. The present status of canal appeared through more than twenty conservacies. I shall make some explanation with the map No. 2 and the Phot. No. 4. The photo was taken at the entrance of south canal. The stone paved overflow dyke is called Xiao Tian Ping about six meters higher than old river bed of Xing Jiang (left side of the photo), it damps up the upper stream of Xing Jiang making artificial lake (right side of the photo) and the water flows into the south canal (Lingqu canal). The dyke enters the grove which is man made islet where present Howshi is settled. At present Lingqu Canal finished her roll as a navigation canal, but she serves as irrigation and service water canal as well. The government of China is eager to repair the canal and to manifest it as the important historical remnant of the world.