It is generally believed that there is no tsuma-iri house type in Korea, but Shin-ri (新里) and Donghwal-ri (東活里) villages make an exception. The above two villages are located on the southern slopes of the Yukbaek and Eungbong mountains, which lie in the southern part of the Kangweon Province (江原道). The climate of the area is comparatively hot in summer and very cold in winter because of the highland location. The village life is mainly agricultural. In the past tsuma-iri rural houses were more widely distributed in the southern part of the korean Peninsula. But they have been encroached upon by other house types, especially the four-room house type. The survivals of the tsuma-iri type may be said to be fossils of the past. The shape, size, roof, house plan and other architectural styles of the house reflected their cultural imprints. In addition, the tsuma-iri rural houses in Korea represent the cultural heritage of the past and the survival of tradition in the southern part of the Peninsula. The basic material used for the roof of the tsuma-iri rural houses are simples. Generally, the roof is covered with small pieces of board known as neowa (板瓦). Such type of roof keeps the room comparatively cool in hot summer and warm in cold winter. The tsuma-iri type has a square outline, but most Korean house plans are rectangular in shape. There are six elements in the tsuma-iri house plan: anbang (the inner room) is used by wife and children, sarangbang is used by husband and guests, dochang is used as a store-room, and maru which has a wooden platform, is used as a sitting room in summer. Others are kitchen and stable. The earth floor is found in the former, which is known as cheongchi, and is used as a place for cooking, working in rainy and snowy weather, and storing fuel. The latter, known as maku, is a cowshed.
The Sakawa river, 45km long,flows from Mt. Fuji down to the Sagami Bay. The lower reaches of this river forms the Ashigara alluvial plain. There exist two kinds of Recent terraces in the plain. The author conducted a geomorphological survey of the distribution and the structure of these Recent terraces in order to show that the formation of an alluvial plain can be affected by volcanic activity and crustal movement. The greater part of the plain is occupied by a fan which was formed by the Sagami river. In addition, there are many small scale landforms such as sand dunes along the shoreline, small fans by the Oiso hill, and valley plains at the foot of Mt. Hakone (Fig. 2 ). The Recent terrace I surface, which is distributed fragmentarily in the gorge of the middle reaches and stands about 30m above the present river bed, corresponds to the Gotenba volcanic mudflow surface at the foot of Mt. Fuji. According to Machida, the volcanic mudflow occurred about 2, 300 years ago. In the Ashigara plain the distribution of the Recent terrace I surface is limited to the fringe of the Sekimoto hill and Mt. Hakone. The relative height of the terrace cliff between the Recent terrace I surface and the present river bed decreases rapidly towards the lower reaches of the plain: 25m at the lower exit of the gorge, 10m at Komagata-Shinjuku, 2m at Numata and so on. Consequently, the Recent terrace I surface is underlain by the present river bed. The Recent terrace II surface is either erosional surface or contemporaneous depositionl surface. Erosional surface is distributed in the gorge and about 10m lower than the terrace I surface. Depositional surface is preserved broadly around Kamonomiya on the left bank along the lower reaches in the plain. The terrace cliff of the II surface increases progressively from O. 5m at Nobukiyo to 4m near the seashore in its height (Fig. 3 , 4). The deposits constituting the Recent terrace I surface are basaltic sand and gravel. Most of the gravels are sub-angular, and laminae are well preserved in the bed. It is considered that these deposits were formed by rapid deposition of short duration. On the other hand, deposits constituting the Recent terrace II surface in the plain can be classified into three beds, Iower C_2, S, and upper C_3. The C_2 bed consists of clay, silt and humus. The S bed consists of the basaltic sands O. 5 to 3. 5m in thickness. The C_3 bed consists of clay, silt and sand with irregular thickness. The C_3 bed forms the present micro-relief of the ground (Fig. 5 ) (Tab. I ). The Recent terrace H around Kamonomiya is uplifted by the crustal movement. The amount of uplift becomes larger to the south and the west. It is considered that an uplift has amounted to ovcr 3m since 2, 300 years when the basaltic sand which corresponds to the Gotenba volcanic mudflow was deposited.
A polllen analysis was made on Pleistocene lake deposit collected from the Yoshiwa basin, Hiroshima prefecture. The pollen sequence of the site is divided into two pollen Periods (Period I and Period II). Period I, the lowest is characterized by abundant sub-alpine conifer in which the leading elements are Picea, Pinus (Haploxiron type), Abies, and Tsuga. The abundant Picea pollen indicate that the sub -alpine forest developed in colder climate than that of present time. From this fact, it may be said that the Pleistocene lake deposit in the Yoshiwa basin have been deposited under cold climate as well as other Pleistocene lake deposits in Chugoku region. The opening of Period II is marked by the abrupt decline of sub-alpine elements and the increase of temperate elements. The increase of temperate elements in which the leading elements are Fagus, Acer, Fraxinus, and Symplocos, represents a warming of climate.