Japanese population has been ageing at an unusually rapid rate, which have recently caused many social and economic problems. This paper aims to clarify the living behavior of the elderly people and its spatial patterns in a mountain village which has many spatial restrictions on the everyday living behavior. For this purpose the author took researches based on questionnuaires and hearings for individual persons in a village (Togouchi-cho, Hiroshima pref.) in the Chugoku mountains. The results obtained by this analysis are summarized as follows ; 1) The elderly's going-out behavior is mostly limited within a small space, Togouchi-cho. Its frequency varies with the transportation method and the location of settlements. In the latter case, the importance is the distance to lower central places. 2) The producing behavior of the elderly is generally inactive. Its spatial range is limited because they are mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture. 3) There is a large spatial restriction on the shopping behavior of the elderly which tends to use the nearest shopping facilities, because its behavior is done mainly on foot or by bus. Its frequency is influenced by the existence of the shopping facilities in their settlements and the type of households including the elderly. 4) Seasonal changes are observed in the elderly's undergoing behavior of medical treatment. Especially in winter, the behavior becomes inactive because of snowfalling. Most of the patients use the nearest hospital (the Togouchi-hospital) which offers the service cars for the patients periodically. Those cars play an important role in the medical treatment of the elderly in this mountain village. 5) Concerning the individual level, the living behavior of the elderly depends on whether he has some personal transportation methods or not. If he doesn't have them, we can confirm the daily rhythms and the weekly rhythms in his behavior.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the changes of the land use of mountain inhabitants from the Meiji era (1868 - 1912), and to describe their environmental recognition to the dynamic changes of land use, considering an interactive processes on how the drastic changes in the land uses are related with environmental recognition on a rural scene. An investigation was conducted at Nasu in Togouchi-cho. Hiroshima Prefecture in 1985. Firstly the author has begun on a collection of the place names from the old people by interview and tried to understand the environmental recognition of the villagers. Changes in land use were ecologically analized from the viewpoint of reciprocal relationships between villagers and natural environment. Drastic changes in their traditional works, and in the distribution of large wild mammals and changes of transportation system around Nasu were discussed. The findings are as follows : Before World War II, the people had various works, which have been largely dependent on broadleaf deciduous trees. Since around 1950, the virgin broadleaf deciduous trees have been chiefly replaced by Japanese cedar trees (Cryptomeria japonica) through afforeststion. As a result, traditional works have generally disappered except cultivation in lenaru (fields around the houses) and afforestation. Wasabi (Wasabia japonica) fields, for example, which are necessary to be surrounded by broadleaf deciduous trees have disappered. Viewing from environmental recognition, villagers' spatial classification of the mountain area, such as Miyama (remote and dense forest) and Naruyama (forests near around the village), has not been available in present daily life. Especialy, the space called Miyama has disappeared. Villagers have long cherished an awful feeling to the nature. However, with the progress of modernization of rural areas, traditional recognition such as above mentioned have been weakened. As a result, reckless overcutting of woods on a steep slopes has caused successive debris flows and the natural hazard has been accelerated to some extent. Drastic changes in fuel use, that are closely related to remarkable economic development in Japan, have changed forest and land use. Such changes have influenced the vegetation and stimulated breeding system of wild boars(Sus scrofa leumystax). Under these situations, a striking outflow of the population has remark-ably increased. The increase of the damage by wild boars into mountain fields has also become one of the causes that bring about afforestation of them. In short, their various works have disappeared as a result of changes of their land use, which is largely influenced by the great consumption for the forest resources in cities or depopulation caused by the change of the regional structure in the Ota Basin.
A comparative study of the Japanese pollen records to the oxgen and carbon-isotope/pollen records from the Arabian Sea, Bengal Bay and Andaman Sea suggests the following summer monsoon fluctuations since the last glacial age in Japan. Ca. 120,000-70,000 years B.P.; Monsoon is active. 70, OO0-50, OOO years B.P.; Monsoon is not active. 50,000-33,000 years B.P.; Monsoon is rather active. 33,000-12,000 years B.P.; Monsoon is not active. But from 28,000 to 25,000 years B.P. is slightly active. 12,000-10,000 years B.P.; Monsoon is to move active. after 10,000 years B.P.; Monsoon is active.