Mr. Masao Nishiki was born in a small village facing the Seto Inland Sea in Hiroshima Prefecture in 1883. He was a studious geographer locally resided. He became an assistant teacher in primary school in 1898 and then obtained teaching certificate of geography for middle school in 1909. Working as a teacher at a middle school, he devoted his time to research work on geography, improvement and enrichment of geography teaching. He became one of leaders in the field of geography and its teaching in Japan before he died in the Atomic Bomb attack in Hiroshima in 1945. His main cotributions in geography teaching are 'Human Geography (Jinbunchirigaku Kogi (1) (2))', 'Method and teaching material for primary geography education (Gutaika-seru Shogakuchirikyozai-to Kyojuho)' and 'Some aspects on geography education (Chirikyoiku-no Shomondai)'. Changes in aspect and method of his geography teaching through his books and articles are summarized as the table below, from which we restore a part of transition of geography teaching in Japan before the World War II. [table]
Around Cape Ashizuri, evidences for former sea levels are recognized as notch, wave cut bench and calcareous remains of organisms living in tidal zone. This paper aims to clalify coseismic crustal movement during Holocene based on geomorphological and biological sea-level indicators around Cape Ashizuri. Based on vertical distribution of former sea level indicators, four former sea levels are distinguished at Cape Ashizuri, i.e. I:4.7m, II:3.5m, III:2.0m, IV:unknown in height. These former sea levels are aged as I:around 4800 y.B.P., II:at least 2730 to 2430 y.B.P., III:around 1770 y.B.P., IV:unknown by means of radiocarbon dating. The earthquakes having caused these abrupt drops of former sea levels are named event 1 to event 4 in counter chronological order. Event 2 to event 4 occurred at 1770 to O y.B.P. , 2430 to 1770 y.B.P., 4800 to 2730 y.B.P. respectively. Judging from radiocarbon ages and distribution of amount of uplift, earthquakes (event 4 and event 3) in Ashizuri region could be correlated to earthquakes (event 6 and event 4) in Muroto region (Maemoku, 1988) respectively. These earthquakes are assumed not to be interplate, but to be intraplate ones.