In the present paper, the author shows the result of application of the method of investigation explained in the previous papers to Beppu Bay in Kyûsyû, the depth of which seems to have been affected by the deposition of sand and mud discharged by rivers, etc. as well as by winds. The following results were obtained, viz. (1) There exists a more or less close parallelism between Δ (s) curve representing the depth distribution of the bay along the coast, and f (s)-or Φ (s) curve representing the effect of prevailing winds. (2) The parallelism seems to be somewhat closer between the curves Δ (s) and f (s) than between the curves Δ (s) and Φ (s). (3) It seems that the phase of undulation of Δ (s) curve is somewhat different from that of f (s)- or Φ (s) curve. A possible explanation was made for this difference in phase. (4) More or less conspicuous anomalies appear here and there in the “Anomaly curve” of this bay. A more detailed discussion will appear in a future number of the “Geophysical Magazine”.
Zusammenfassung: -Zur Bestimmung der Verdunstung von Wassertropfen suspendieren wir es auf dem Ende des vertikal abhängenden Glasstabs und photographieren seine Grösseänderung in der Luftströmung, welche Feuchtigkeit so wie die Windgeschwindigkeit si_??_h verändern lässt. Daraus haben wir eine empirische Formel aufgestellt wie folgend; im Versuchungsbereich Tropfenradius r=0.2_??_1.0mm, Windgeschw. v=1_??_6.5m/sek, bm-b Δb=1_??_9mmHg, und die Formel ist anwendbar auf die Regentröpfen, wenn man v als die Fallgeschwindigkeit des Tropfens ansieht. Einige Ergebnissen über die Regentropfen; Bei derselbe Höhenverteilung der Luftfeuchtigkeit je kleiner ist der Regentropfen, desto grösser ist sein Verdunstungsprozent, und die sehr kleine Tropfen verschwinden, ehe sie dem Boden reichen. Die noch in der Luft zu enthaltende Wasserdampfmenge nimmt exponential nur sehr langsam durch die Verdunstung der Regentropfen ab.
In my previous paper, I have discussed the effect of topography on the wave-length and the amplitude of Helmholtz Wave for a semi-circular cylindrical mountain range and some other cases, neglecting the effect of earth's boundary formally and here I studied on the influence of earth's boundary on Helmholtz wave. Then the next conclusion was drawn. If the temperatures of the upper and lower mediums, and the differences of the velocities, the temperatures between the upper medium and the lower medium are all constants, the stable wave-length near the earth's surface must be considerable longer and the amplitude smaller than those at a surface of discontinuity very high above the earth's surface, and the effect is more remarkable for long wave than for short wave. In other words, the appearance of short wave is almost independent of the effect of the boundary but that of long wave is more frequent in upper atmosphere than lower one, in which short wave has a tendency to prevail by the effect of the earth's surface. Such a tendency can be verified by the results of observation of wave cloud done by Mr. S. Ishimaru, and the amplitude of short wave has nearly nothing to do with the effect of the boundary except very near the earth, but that of lo_??_g wave in upper region is greater than that of in lower region under the influence of the earth's surface.
Spitaler's formula, Tφ'=-2·43+17·6cosφ'+7·1cos2φ'+19·3Lcos2φ'(degree in Centigrade), which shows the distribution of annual mean temperature of air including the effect characterised by the distribution of land and sea, may be approximately replaced by the spherical function as follows: Tθ=18·09-37·27P2(cosθ)-0·42sin2φ•P62(cosθ), on the assumption that the earth consists of two continents separated by two oceans. Here φ'=latitude, θ=colatitude and φ=longitude, φ=0 corresponding to the western extremity of continent. The mathematical computation has been performed after A. Oberbeck in his elaborate work on the general circulation of the atmosphere. The distribution of wind velocity in the lower atmosphere thus derived is given in Fig. I and that prevailing in the upper atmosphere is illustrated in Fig. II, from which we see that the continent is operative so as to accelerate the westerly currents in middle latitudes and with the ocean the case is just reversed. Extending the above derivation to the theory of monsoon wind we are able to explain the absence of antimonsoon in the sense of A. Wagner's word(1) and also the discordance between the location of the lowest temperature and the center of high pressure area, which for example may be observed in Siberia in winter season.