The relations between humidity and other meteorological elements are investigated and the results are summarized as follows. (1) The air is dry when the weather is fine while it is wet when the weather is bad. The mean value of humidity is 66% for fine, 77%. for cloudy, 90% for rainy weather respectively. (2) The humidity becomes small when the wind becomes strong and gusty. (3) The humidity is large on the sea. (4) Hence, we can easily predict the humidity by predicting the weather and the wind. (5) The vapour tension of air is fairly conservative, hence it is easily predicted. (6) Calculating the transfer of heat and vapour in the atmosphere, the above results can be proved theoretically.
Within the troposphere, the temperature decreases with height. A lapse-rate less than the dry adiabatic lapse-rate is common, and so the stratification of the atmosphere is usually stable. In the stable atmosphere the downward flux of heat is resulted by the turbulent motion. But the process of condensation and evaporation is the most important factor in this lowest part of the atmosphere. The libration of latent heat by the process of condensation is compensated with the downward-flux of heat and thus the libration of latent heat by the process of condensation is a important factor determining the normal stratification in the troposphere.
The original data were obtained from the weather maps analysed by the Central Meteorological Observatory, T_??_ky_??_. First, the iocitions where more than 550 travelling anticyclones originate were determined carefully and were tabulated during the 8-year period extenling 1933-1940. The frequencies were written for each 2° square of latitude and longitude (see Fig. 1). The place of origin of travelling highs seems to be influenced to some extent by the distribution of land and water. The principal area of origin may be roughly expressed as the eastern China. Next the travelling highs during the same period in Japanese area have been enumerated and their seasonal distribution is Winter 14.9, Spring 24_??_5, Summer 9.5. Autumn 21.9. Thus the frequency of the travelling highs which appear in our weather chart is rather high in Spring and Autumn. Next the total number of travelling highs that traversed each square, two degrees longitude in width and two degr es latitude in length, during the 8-year period were enumerated. Chart 3 and 4 were constructed according to this plan. The location of the composite tracks is determined on the ground that the axis of the region of greatest anticyclone frequency indicates the mean position of the anticyclone paths, which may be roughly summed up as three groups (see Fig. 3).
The radioative collectors using Radium F were prepared. Radium F (containing RaE) was isolated from Radium-emanation etc., and was deposited on the small brass plate which is used as a collector. The method of isolation and the results of the measurements are described.
The nature of the mysterious sea fire “Siranui” in Japan have been studied by the present writer. Among the various natures the extraordinary refraction of fishermen's lamplight is the most interesting and this is the essential nature of the Siranui. In the summer of the last year we examined again this phenomenon with a large camera and bright lamps in the Siranui sea. The camera was constructed with a telescope removing its eyeglass. The focal length of its lens was one meter and its plate holder was moved slowly by means of an electric motor and gear-wheels, in the vertical direction or that near horizontal one. As light sources. the head lights of automobiles were used. The lights and thermometers were set on floats respectively. With these apparatus the temperature of the sea water, that of air near the sea surface and the refraction of lights passing through the air were measured accurately, and a result similar to that given in the study of the Siranui was obtained.
The mysterious sea fire “Siranui” in japan has been very famous from ancient times. The mysterious nature of it was studied by the present writer and the results have already been stated(1). According to this study, “Siranui” is strange fires appearing due to the extraordinary refraction of fishermen's lamplights. The air medium giving this refraction is produced when the air on the Siranui Sea is warmed by the sea water whose temperature is about 30°C. and cooled by the air of about 25°C. coming from beaches. In order to examine this phenomenon a model experiment was carried out. Apparatus was constructed with an iron water-tank and an iron plate. the width of them being 24cm. and the length 3m. The air space between the tank and the plate, whose sectional area was 15×24cm2 and the length 3m, was heated at sand placed on the lower iron plate, and cooled by the upper tank. The disturbed motion of the air in the space was optically examined. lights being observed through it. With this method of experiment a cellular vortex motion of the air was observed, and a wavy boundary between the surface of the heater and the reflecting one, which was similar to the gossamer observed in the Siranui Sea, was also detected. When the wind was sent into the space mentioned above, and point lights placed in a row were observed through the air in the space, the appearance of them became most similar to that of the Siranui. From the results it is concluded that the Siranui is the hshermen's lamplights observed through the air warmed by the sea water, in which a cellular vortex motion takes place being set in motion by a breeze.