This paper is composed of two parts. The first part deals with the general theory of long-period seismographs having a device of the mechanical registration and the properties of horizontal pendulum of Zöllner's befilar type. As to be convenient for designing these instruments we investigated about the style of the suspended bodies as well as the tension of the fibre in the equilibruim state. The results thus obtained are graphically represented in Fig. 3, 4 and 5. In the second part is described an electrical methol which makes to record mechanically the motion of long-period pendulum with a sufficient magnification and without any frictional resistance. For this purpose we adopted a system of series, i.e. horizontal pendulum (seismograph)→coil (generator)→amplifier→recording galvanometer. The seismograph is similarly constructed in size and figure as Galitzin's one. The horizontal pendulum, having a mass of 10kg hanged with piano wires of 0.7mm in diameter, bears a coil (20, 000Ω) and alminium plate. Both lie in the magnetic field and serve as the generator and damper respectively. In this seismograph it is not so difficult to get a period more than 40 sec. the pendulum continues to freely oscillate for a long while without any considerable decrease in amplitude if the effect of the damper be properly taken away. The recording galvanometer was specially designed for this purpose. It is of a moving coil type and bears a recording pen with a straw (strengthened by bakelite suffusion) style in order to get registration on a smoked paper (See photopraphs of Fig. 16). The resistance of this galvanometer is 5, 600Ω, the proper period of it 0.4 sec., the damping ratio v=4 in the case of open circuit. It causes a deflection of about 1cm. on the paper for a current of 0.1mA when the arm length is 16cm. The current generated in the coil by earthquakes is in Galitzin's method lead to a long-period sensitive galvanometer and observed photographically, but here we magnified it by a voltage and current amplifier to get a current large enough to act the mechanically recording galvanometer of short-period mentioned above. The wiring of the amplifier is shown in Fig. 6. This amplifier consists of three stages of push-pull type directly coupled. Vacuum tubes B 228 and A 409 are used. The formers of earlier two stages are operated by 2 and 200 Volt storage battery and the latters of the last stage by rectified current obtained from 100 Volt A. C. line. We can obtain a sufficient stableness of this amplifier for the continuous routine observation and its adjustment and treatment are not so difficult. If the condensers used in this amplifier be omitted or changed properly for others of different capacity, we can get to some extent a desirable condition of amplification for the current generated by earthquakes according as its period varies. In a word, the magnification curve for stationary oscillations obtained by the present arrangement is very alike to that of Galitzin's instruments. But there are some inevitable defects because the recorded seismogram is magnified in very complex manner except when the earthquake motion takes place in regular oscillations, and even in this case a remarkable phase lag is observed for rapid oscillations. In brief, our intension is to get the mechanically registered seismogram applied to the Galitzin's seismograph, because the photographic recording has various inconveniences for a routine work. Some examples of seismograms obtained by the present method are shown in Fig. 16. Of course there may be many things to be improved in our apparatus, it seems, however, to suggest that the registcring method of this kind may be useful for the routine observation of distant earthquakes by long-period seismographs, and also applicable to observations of other geophysical phenomena, such as terrestrial magnetism, earth current, wind, temperature and pressure of the air etc.
Using the results of aerological observations made at Tateno and Kasumigaura in Japan proper, the vertical structures of some typhoons have been studied. Generally the maxmum height of ascent is below than 3km of height, so that the structure of the uppermost part are quite uncertain. In the south quadrant of a typhoon the fresh tropical maritime air advances rapidly to north under the influence of a typhoon, so that the fresh warm tropical air blows over the modified air remaining over the earth's surface under the skin friction. Thus marked inversion is always observable. In the east quadrant of a typhoon, the upper air is warm and moist up to 3km of height, at least. If the upper air in the east quadrant of a typhoon is abnormally warm and moist, then the typhoon moves steadily northward. For if in the warm sector of the typhoon the upper air flows with high velocity from South to North, then the fresh tropical air in the east quadrant is abnormally warm, and the typhoon moves northward by the thermal winds. In the north quadrant of a typhoon, the upper air of polar origin shows usually large lapserate. If the lapse-rate is abnormally large, then the typhoon will probably advance westward, and if the typhoon recurves to northeast, it will die away soon. Again if the frontal inversion forming the upper boundary of the polar maritime air or the subsidence inversion in the polar continental air in the north quadrant is observed, then the typhoon will probably advance northeastward in near future.
The principle of rapid sulphate analysis commonly used in the limnology is the substitution of this ion with chromate ion. There are three methods to determine the chromate which is equivalent to the sulphate content in the sample. 1. Iodimetry, generally called Andrew's method. This is not at all usefull for a small amount of sulphate. 2. Colorimetry with the yellow colour of chromate ion. This is the most appropriate method, if the water contains from 20mg. to 1 gr. of sulphate ion per litre. 3. Colorimetry with diphenyl-carbazide. The colour is not always proportional to the concentration of the chromate present.
O. W. Richardson has found that the thermoclectrical phenomena is well accounted for not only qualitatively but also quantitatively by the application of the kinetic theory of gases on the problem. Recently I. Langmuir has measured the rate of evaporation of tungsten molecules from metalic tungsten and has proved it to be equal to the rate calculated from the kinetic theory. In this paper I derivel the theoretical formula for evaporation of water by the Richardson's method. It is expressed by the following form, V=k1/√T(P-p)√W where V is the velocity of evaporation, T the temperature of water (absolute scale) P the maximum vapour pressure at T, p the measured vapour pressure, W wind Velocity. Further this formula is compared with the statistical investigation of K. Maeda and T. Syôyama.
Using Japanese observational materials during the periods 50_??_60 years, and analysing by means of the Method of Least Square, the author has concluded that: (1) In large developing cities such as Tôkyô, Oosaka and Kyôto, the observed air-temperature is tending to increase year after year (about 1°C century). The cause of increasing air-temperature is probably due to the artificial generation of heat by industry, transporting system, cooking and heating apparatus. Such a tendency is especially remarkable in colder half of the year. (2) The air-temperature in Japan, as a whole, seems to have a general tendency to increase year after year. (3) The annual variability of air temperature in high latitudes is much greater than that in low latitudes.
Some statistics have been made to see the general tendency of horizontal visibility by the data of recent two years observed at the Tôkyô Air Port of Haneda. The author has obtained monthly mean values of visibilities at 6, 10, 14, 18, 22h as is shown in Table 1 and those for four directions in Table 2. They are expressed by visible mean distance in km. and there is the following relation international scale and that the author used. The main results obtained from the present investigation are as follows:- (1) Diurnal variation: Visibility becomes the worst in the morning, best in the daytime and rather good in the night compared with the early morning. When the monsoon develops in winter, it becomes sometimes very good on the west even in the early morning. (2) Annular variation: Good in winter and summer, bad in spring and baiu or rainy season of summer and rather bad in the early winter. (3) Variation due to the direction: The worst on the north (direction for the Tôkyô city), the best on the south (for the Bay of Tôkyô), rather good in winter on the west and good in summer on the east.