Results of comparison measurements of a sonic anemometer developed at Kyoto University and one developed at the University of Washington are presented. Good agreement between the instruments has been obtained. Several techniques of data reduction have been applied. Comparison between the digital and analogue techniques gave consistent results. Besides comparison measurements, general observations of atmospheric turbulence are presented including variance spectra of the vertical wind component w and temperature T for various stabilities, and cospectra as well as coherence between w and T.
The low-level jet stream which appeared near the meso-low on the “Baiu” front, the stationary front in the rainy season in Japan, is analyzed. It is revealed that its dimensions were 500 km in diameter and 4km in depth. It is also found that the jet core preceded the meso-low center, and the strong vertical current appeared in the lee side of the jet core. An improved technique is applied on the aerological data analysis.
Measurement of the electric charge generated by the breaking of frost under a temperature gradient was performed in a cold room of -15°C. An electric charge of about 0.3 e.s.u./cm2 was generated by the breaking of frost under a temperature gradient of 10°C/cm. Negative electric charge was separated to warmer side of the frost. This electric charge is considered to be created at the breaking plane of frost under temperature gradient.
The geostrophic system of equations with both the effects of orography and heat contrast corresponding to land-sea distribution is integrated with respect to time by using the spectral method. The computed results show the appearance of reasonable blocking situation and a corre-sponding double jet stream in the latitudinal distribution of the zonally averaged zonal wind. The budgets of heat, angular momentum and energy for the period characterized by the predominant double jet stream are compared with those for another period to clarify the dynamical properties concerning blocking. The results of comparison are summarized as follows : 1. As a result of the unusual poleward transport of heat, the meridional circulation has a 4-cell structure for the period during which the double jet stream predominates. 2. In the upper layer, the angular momentum is transferred to high latitudes to compensate for the destruction of angular momentum due to the direct polar meridional circulation, forming a 4-cell structure during this period. This angular momentum contributes to the formation and development of the north branch of the double jet stream. 3. The poleward transports of heat and angular momentum are performed mainly by the disturbance of wave number 2 which shows a large growth when the predominant double jet stream appears. 4. In the upper layer, this disturbance is fed by conversion of available potential energy into kinetic energy through the baroclinic process and by transport of kinetic energy from the lower layer through the pressure force; while, in the lower layer, mainly by the transformation from zonal to eddy kinetic energy through the effect of mountains. 5. The difference between the diabatic heatings of the oceans and the continents becomes smaller during the predominant blocking situation.