This paper theoretically deals with the influences of the surface roughness on the atmospheric turbulent diffusion in the vertical and horizontal directions. Taking account of the fact that the dissipation rate of turbulent energy increases with the roughness parameter of the ground surface, the influences of roughness parameter on the velocity and life-time of the largest turbulon characterizing the diffusion phenomena are obtained. Comparisons of the present results with O. G. Sutton's recent assumption concerning the same problem, introducing the macroviscosity into the Lagrangian correlation coefficient, are carried out.
Since the establishment of meteorological observations in Japan, the climatic factors in winter and summer change in parallel with the 11-year running means of the sunspot relative numbers, though the parallelism does not hold after about 1940. The mechanism which governs the trends is considered to be as shown in the following table and vice versa, according to Simpson's theory on the glacial and interglacial ages. The connection seems to be inconceivable, but it is presumed that in the Okhotsk Sea it was warmer in glacial ages in the quarternary period than at present.
To realize the vertical structure of the pressure and the temperature fields of the disturbance in a typhoon, the author has analysed these fields in Typhoon “Ruth” under a somewhat different view point. These results and features may be interpreted by the following thought that the typhoon occurs and develops in the latent unstable atmosphere whose depth is nearly equal to the depth of the troposphere. Although the isentropic surface is convex downwards in the central part of the typhoon, this region is not that of descending current, but indeed of ascending one except for the very centre (eye). Therefore the occurrence of the high temperature part of the middle layer in the neighbourhood of the centre may not be deemed simply by the adiabatic compression by the descending air. Here we emphasize the importance of the concept of the quasi-polytropic potential temperature.