Analysing the autographic records of the pressure, temperature, humidity, wind-velocity, winddirection and rain-fall, during 5th to 8th, June 1933, at all stations available, frontal and air mass analyses in the horizontal and vertical sections were made. The principal features of the results may be briefly summarized. (A) The Horizontal Structure. (1) The three air masses such as (see Fig. 2 and 3) (i) Tropical Maritime Air Masses. (TM) ……moist, warmest, conditionally unstable and convectively unstable (ii) Transitional Sub-tropical Asiatic Continental Air Masses (JTA) ……dry, warm, and conditionally unstable (iii) Transitional Sub-tropical Pacific Air Masses (JTP) …………moist, cold, and conditionally unstable in which J means a transitional air mass, blow out from three high pressure sources and encounter at the center of the yellow sea (Scherhag's Dreimasseneck), and the cyclone rapidly regenerate or develop. Chart 2 shows a typical tropical front cyclone, having three marked fronts in which the tropical warm front is most remarkable. The association of the heavy rain with the fronts is very clearly seen (see Chart 2 and Fig. 15). (2) The cold front moving with the cyclonic center forms a wave like shape by the topographic effect. (Fig. 7) (3) The warm sector are secluded by the topographic effect and a new low pressure area with the residual warm sector are regenerated in the sea to south of Japan proper, The new cyclone are gradually strengthened by acquiring a fresh warm sector and vanished in the Bering Sea with the life of about ten days. (Chart 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8) (4) The part of seclusion and back bent occlusion of the main cyclone are entirely occluded and disappeared in the western part of Okhotsk sea. (Chart 6, 7 and 8) (B) The Vertical Structure (1) The slope of the warm front is 1/190 and the slope of the cold front is 1/50. The characteristic properties of the tropical maritime air masses (TM), which in very clearly distinguished from others, is most conservative because the direction of blowing from southwest is almost unchangeable. (see Fig. 8 and 11) (2) The vertical distributions of the air masses are shown in Fig. 10.
By the investigation in the quickly developed 127 cyclones (typhoons are excluded) which appeared in the four years, 1933-36, the author obtained the statistical results as follows. 1. The number of depressions appearing in Japan and its vicinity shows a maximum in spring and a minimum in summer, but developed cyclones appear from October to May and severe ones only from January to March.
2. Cyclones which appear in Amur Region and enter in Okhotsk Sea passing Karahuto are found most frequently in December and January, ones passing Japan Sea in March and April, ones passing the sea to south of Japan Proper especially in January and February, nextly in spring, and ones forming and developing in the sea to east of Japan Proper in March. 3. In winter, the region, where cyclones develop quickly, forms a belt extending northeastward from the sea to south of Japan Proper to the neighbouring sea of Tisima. This belt is the so-called climatological frontal zone. In spring the western part of this frontal zone moves northward, in summer it goes till farthest north (about 50°N) However, the eastern part of this zone is nearly stationary in the sea to east of Tisima. Thus the climatological frontal zone in the neighbourhood of Japan makes a seasonal periodic movement. And cyclones move between eastnortheastward and northnortheastward developing within the frontal zone. 4. Developing cyclones which appeared in Japan, in general, become most vigorous after 48 hours since their appearance, while the deepening of their center is about 20mm. 5. The rate of development is maximum in winter and minimum in summer. Collecting the data, the author found some interesting and remarkable facts as follows. a) Every severe cyclone has the distinct omen of the development in the early stage, that is the striking fall of the pressure around the center, the precipitation over a wide area, the rather vigorous cyclonic wind system in spite of the young shallow depression, and a line of discontinuity extending f_??_om south to north through the center. b) Every cyclone in active development has the distinct warm sector, whose intensity increases with the deepening of the center. But the form of the warm front is differ from the Bjerknes' model, and in general runs out to eastnortheast or northeastward far from the center. In the course of time the cold air in the rear side of the front pushes forward, but generally the occlusion does not take place, since the cyclone does not always move with warm current, but rather along the warm front. c) As the Fujiwhara's theory in 1923, the quick development of cyclones by amalgamation is found frequently. More detailed investigation about these remarks will be reported by the author in the near future.
From April 1938 to March 1939, the quantities of the atmospheric impurities in the central part of Tokyo were chemically estimated. From the analytical data, the writer obtained the following results. § Chloride. 1. Max. 21.8 γ/m3, min. trace. The yearly average; 4.40 γ/m3 2. There is a correlation between chloride content and wind velocity. § SO2 (and H2SO4)-Sulphur. 1. Max. 38.8γ/m3, min. trace. The yearly average; 7.38γ/m3 2. Sulphuric acid content is larger in winter season (Dec-Apr.) than in summer (May-Nov.) § Ammoniacal Nitrogen. 1. Max. 78.1 γ/m3, min. 30γ/m3. The yearly average; 23.22 γ/m3. 2. In the yearly variation of ammonia, the maximum comes in June. This suggests that the origin of ammonia is not the fuel but the putrefied substance. § pH of Water through which the Air-bubbles were passed. It can be theoretically calculated from the difference between the equivalent of sulphuric acid and ammonia. § Nitrite nitrogen. 1. Max. 15.6 γ/m8, min, trace. The yearly average; 5.65 γ/m3.
To compare the generation of circulation in the Far East and Europe, the contribution due to the baroclinic term is considered. The term -∫dp/ρ over Asia is positive (cyclogenetic) in winter and negative (cyclolytic) in summer, and vice versa over Europe. Especially large values are found in the Asiatic winter. The area of positive baroclinic tendencies spreads to the west of the low pressure and the negative area to the west of the high pressure.
In this short note we have discussed the relations between dC/dt and ∂C/∂t, where C is defined as follows: C=∫s(udx+vdy+wdz). For the purpose of numerical calculations the expressions for dC/dt and ∂C/∂t are given in the form of line integrals but for the physical concepts they are given by surface integrals.
The Anemocinemograph, which is made by J. Richard-Paris, is a very convenient instrument to record the wind velocity, but its anemometer is too delicate to stand against storm Therefore, the author has designed a new transmitting part of it. This transmitting part is attached to a Robinson's cup-anemometer. By means of a worm and a worm-gear, the rotation of the anemometer is conveyed to an axis, which mades one revolution per 100 meters of wind range. On this axis two cams are fixed; one is made in a shape of a round-cornered square, and another is elliptic. Two rollers, each of which is pressed to the corresponding cam, made to and fro motions, by which two electric circuits are closed and opened, one every 25 meters and another 50 meters of wind range. When the circuit for 25 meters is used, the recording part records the wind velocity, as usual, up to 30m/s, but in the case of the circuit for 50 meters, the wind velocity up to 60m/s can be recorded.