In the inner zone of a typhoon, centering at 20°_??_30°N latitude even at the altitude of high clouds, the spirally inflowing currents in cyclonic sense are often observed. The neutral plane must then lie higher than the level of high clouds. Also the outflowing currents in anticyclonic sense at the level of high clouds are also observed. Thus the observational material of high clouds in the inner zone of a typhoon, gives a good evidence in favor of the view that a tropical cyclone have about the same height as the cyclone of middle latitudes, and that the height of the neutral plane is estimated to be about 10 km.
We have studied water-soluble sublimates on the surface of volcanic a hes from Mt. Asama (six different samples since 1912) and Mt. Aso (1934). The ions detected are as follows:- Discussions are done about the relations between the water-soluble matters and 1. volcanic gases. 2. industrious damages caused by ashes. 3. hygroscopic nature of ashes. 4. hot springs. 5. activity of volcanoes etc.
The distribution of the pressure at any level depends not only on the distribution of the pressure but also on the distribution of temperature at the surface of the earth, as was shown by Margules, Shaw, Ryd, Brunt and Arakawa. Since the gradient of the surface pressure field decreases and the gradient of the surface temperature field increases with height, the wind due to the former will gradually be effaced, but the wind due to the latter will become more and more stronger with the increase of height. Thus, if the temperature gradient is very small and the height of typhoon is comparatively low, the movement of it will be controlled by the general current caused by the pressure gradient (see Fig. I). The consideration that a typhoon in a low latitude moves in the direction of the geostrophic wind and the velocity of it is proportional to the wind-velocity when the temperature gradient is negligibly small, was ascert_??_ined by Dr. Horiguti. On the other hand, however, if the temperature gradient is effective than the pressure gradient and height of typhoon is comparatively high the typhoon moves in the direction of isothermal lines and the velocity of it is proportional to the temperature gradient (see Fig. 2). In this paper, it is shown that the law hold good for four severe typhoons passed over the neighbourhoods of Japan Proper.
There is a logarithmic relation between visibility and the graduation of “Wigand Sichtmesser, ” and the curve showing this relation changes its shape according to (a) the weather condition, (b) the distance and (c) the form of the object. In this report the author constructed the “visibility table” after his observations under various conditions such as: (a) (i) clear, (ii) mist or haze, (iii) rain of fog. (b) (i) object in the distance, (ii) object situating near. (c) (i) object visible cle_??_rly, (ii) object visible dimly.
By the method similar to, but a little different from those proposed by Prof. T. Terada, gustiness of wind at three stations with different sea-levels, Hakoneyama (936.2m), Misima (20.1m) and Numadu (6.0m) were compared with the results: (1) at each station the coefficient g in the equation vm=gV+k:, where vm is the mean maximum amplitude and v the mean wind velocity, is greater for easterly than for westerly wind, and their ratio is nearly the same at all the stations. (2) g, for easterly and westerly wind directions are respectively 0.57, 0.42 on Hakoneyama, 1.26, 0.87 at Misima and 1.45, 1.09 at Numadu.
Over the period from June to October 1934 and in June 1935, the atmospheric content of carbon dioxide was determined at Misima and on Mt. Hakone by the modified Pettenkofer method submitted by Dr. T. Asahina. Comparing these data with several meteorological elements, we have the results that the variation is chiefly attributed to the wind direction from which the air flows. It seems that the other meteorological conditions are rather indifferent.