The present paper contains some results of observations of nocturnal radiation made at the cen'ral Meteorological Observatory (Tokyo) by means of a pyrgeometer of Angström's pattern during the last quarter of 1935. The amounts of outward radiation are observed to be in a close connection to the weather type, vertical distribution of temperature, vapour contents of the atmosphere and other meteorological factors. The discussions are made on the residuals O-C as reduced on the basis of Brunt's formula RN=σT4(A-B√ρ), which are plotted against those meteorological factors. Also the importance of considering those relations in connection with the difference of “air mass” is emphersized.
In this paper, are discussed the erosion, transportation and sedimentation of bed load of shallow seas or bays due to wind waves, and the amount of material eroded or deposited was estimated. In Chapter I, a consideration was made on the forces at work upon the bed load, viz. the action of gravity, the hydrodynamical upthrust and the effect of turbulence. Assuming various laws of force, the falling velocities of sand particles of different grain sizes were numerically calculated. Besides, the relation between the movement of water and that of the bed load was examined, and it was verified that large sand particles such as gravel, coarse gravel etc. cannot immediately follow the movement of the water, and are transported in the mode of sliding, rolling or saltation, while very small particles such as silt, fine sand etc. execute nearly the same motion as that of water. In Chapter II, the differential equation of erosion and sedimentation was deduced, and the solutions were obtained for some suitable boundary and initial conditions. For each solution, numerical computations were carried out. In Chapter III, the amount of material eroded or deposited was calculated. A more detailed discussion will appear in a future number of the “Geophysical Magazine”.
On the morning on the above date the centre of the city of Tôkyô was covered with dense smoke, that was carried there by the weak NE-E wind from the industrial district (called Honjô, the north-eastern region of the city). Fine and quite calm weather throughout the previous night as well as an occurance of an inversion near the ground early in that morning, which occurs very frequently in such a weather, had given rise to the heavy accumulation of smoke in that region. At our observatory the density of the smoke was measured every fifteen seconds by Luxmeter directed to the sun. We obtained the result as shown in fig. 5, from which it became clear that large masses of the smoke A, D, E, F and small fragments B, C, G, H had passed on in the neighbourhood of the observatory. (I=IoAsec ze-ax) Some photographs taken in the midst of the smoke are shown Pl. 10 fig. 2, the minimum visibility being less than 400m. Now, we obtained a very interesting result as to the microvariation of air temperature during the passage of the smoke. If we compare the largely magnified record of temperature with that of wind velocity (anemocinemograph) in fig. 8, we can see that the rate of increase or decrease of the temperature changed suddenly at every minimum point of wind velocity. Their changes are classified into the three cases shown in fig. 9. I. The cases in which the cold mass of the smoke comes at our place. The density of the smoke increases, when the wind begins to blow (cf. Pl. 11 fig. 3 in which the density of the smoke and the record of Dynes' anemograph are shown superposed.) II. The cases in which by the turbulence the cold smoke near the ground is mixed with the warmer air above it, and the density of the smoke decreases. III. The cases in which the warmer air above the smoke layer comes down on the ground, after the smoke has passed away. Under microscope were examined smoke particles received on a glass plate. They aggregate mechanically in most cases, but some of them represent a manner as if they have electric charge (Pl, 12 fig. 4.) The details of my investigations will given in a future number of the Geophysical Magazine published from the Central Meteorological Observatory.
In their investigation of the tunami due to the greate Kwantô earthquake occurred on the September 1 st. 1923, Prof. T. Terada and S. Yamaguti pointed out that the curious oscillations of sea level happened on that occasion at some places on the coast around the Tokyo Bay. At Yokosuka, situated SW-ern coast of the Bay, were observed the oscillations of sea level having the period of about 120 min, at Sibaura situated NW-ern coast of the Bay, that of 75 min. Mareograms at some places illustrated in the paper of cited above are reproduced in the Fig.1. Whether the oscillation at Yokosuka may be due to the seiche of the Tokyo Bay having a a period of about 120 min or not was not certainly ascertained by these authors, because that no oscillations having such a period was observed at Sibaura and Hukagawa. Recently by means of comparison of the mareogram at Yokosuka with that at Tiba, T. Suzuki discovered that the oscillation at Tiba has also the period of almost 120 min which is nearly equal to that of Yokosuka and the phases nearly opposite to those at Yokosuka. According to these facts, these oscillations were considered by him to be the proper oscillations of the Tokyo Bay. But his discussion was mainly directed to the phenomenon of the land upheaval which took place at the great earthquake and he considered that this had to be the cause of oscillation of the Tokyo Bay, so that the discussion with reference to the sea level change occurred at Sibaura and Hukagawa were scarcely treated in his papers. In the present paper is mainly treated of these oscillations. At first, if we suppose the oscillation at Sibaura be due to the secondary or lateral one of the Bay, it may be also expected in the observation at Tiba situated on the NE-ern coast and opposite to Sibaura. But it was not the case as the mareogram at Tiba does not show obviously any oscillation having the similar period. Accordingly we must give up this consideration. On the other hand, the possibility of another oscillation of sea water has come to us. Let us look at the chart about the Tokyo Bay shown in Fig. 3 and let our attention give to the form of its coastal line about Sibaura and Hukagawa, and we may see that it curves inwardly like the form of a cup and embrace within it an inlet or a little bay refered as the Sinagawa Bay. While the vertical displacement of the earthsurface which took place at the great earthquake and the local distribution of whose magnitude is shown in Fig. 3 caused the tilting of the sea bottom of the Sinagawa Bay. These conditions seem to lead the oscillation like secondary one in the Sinagawa Bay. For a rough estimation, let the Sinagawa Bay be a rectangular one with uniform depth, length and breath, magnitude of which are measured roughly from the chart to be 4m, 8km and 12km respectively. Then we have its period equal to 75min, provided that the mouth correction be without consideration. Thus roughly estimated period agrees well with what observed at Sibaura and Hukagawa. But the calculated amplitude of sea level change at the head of the Bay amounts to about 20cm which is far different from 2m that was observed, and if the tilting of the sea bottom be assumed to take place at the same moment as the earthquake, its first heighest of sea level change at the head of the Bay is reckoned to occur at 37min after the earthquake, which is far different from 91min that was observed. Consequently, we are obliged to abandon the idea of secondary oscillation of Sinagawa Bay as it contradicts the facts. At last, only one case remains for us, in which the forced oscillation of Sinagawa Bay was caused by that of Tôkyô Bay. If it be so, we may reasonably expect the occurrence of the phase of forced one in the mareogram at Sibaura. And it is shown to be the case by Fig. 2 which expresses the cansidarable coincidence of phases observed at Tiba with corresponding phases at Sibaura.
Wheat is probably the most important, as a counter-plot for increase of demand of wheat in Japan and failure of the rice-crops of the past few years have sharply emphasized. Although much work has been done to determine the effect of fertilizers or soiltypes or assumption concerning the iufluence of the weather factors on the yield and quality of wheat, yet the actual effects of various kinds of weather upon the quality and yield of wheat are only imperfectly known Relation between the wheat and climate is very much complexer than in the case of the rice-crops and then climatic factors as well as soiltype or manures, may be expected to influence the yield and quality of wheat. This study is an attempt to determine climatic zones for wheat culture, in which it can be grown successfully or unsuccessfully. There are following two general methods by which such a problem may be attacked. One is the experimental method of wheat at the field of experimental station under various kind of weather factors conditions. The other is the collation or statistical method, in which the actual yields under commercial conditions are compared in historical series (A. annual comparative investigation) or local series (B. local comparative investigation) with the recorded weather conditions. In this study has been investigated relation between the wheat and climate by the latter method. Winter wheat (Triticum Vu'gare, Host) in Japan is planted for the 3 months from September to November and harves_??_ed in June or July, and is therefore subject to the influence of the weather for the 8-10 months. A. Annual comparative investigation. Correlations between annual weather elements (monthly mean of temperature, monthly total hours of sunshine and monthly amount of precipitation) and annual yields (1902-1933) per Tan of wheat for the 5 prefectures (Miyagi, Tochigi, Okayama and Fukuoka) are low. Comparative larger coefficient of correlation of the weather elements with the wheat yields shows Following. B. Local comparative investigation. (1) Correlations between the yield and precipitation are largest (-0.750 for all period of cultivation) than any other weather elements. (2) Correlation coefficients between the yield and sunshine are positive and in the case of the middle period (from January to March) the coefficient is largest (+0.621). (3) In regard to correlation of monthly mean of temperature for cultivated period of wheat with the wheat yield there appears that in the warm locality (more than 11°C) the coefficient in large and negative (-0.750), indicating that the yield was increased by a lowered temperature in the locality. C. Determination of climatic zones of wheat. As a result of above both investigation has been determined fourteen climatic zones of wheat in Japan Proper by the various degrees of analogicality or adaptability of climatic environment for the wheatcrops. Wheat grown in Japan Proper, on an average, a higher yields when grown in the region of slightly precipitation (for instance, coast of the Inland Sea, the Kanto district, etc., ) than they did when grown in the humid climate of Japan (for instance, coast of Japanese Sea and southest district).
The result of the correlation periodgram analysis of eleven year period of sun spot by Mr. Tomizawa and Mr. Simose was analysed and found that there are two sorts of period in it, i. e., undamped and damped. This suggests that the eleven years periods is the resonance phenomena of the periodicity due to the internal mechanism of the sun and the effect of the external effect of eleven year period such as Jupiter, though it is not conclusive. There are a great number of investigations on the eleven year period of sun spot. Recently, Mr. Tomizawa and Mr. Simose analysed the eleven year period by the method of correlation proposed by author, and they found that the period is 11.47 year. But the results of them tells us much more than this though they are not pointed out. The curve of them, that is, the relation between r(t) and t where r(t) is the correlatlon coefficient between the number of sun spot in a year and the number after t year, shows damped oscillation, but the damping is ceased after few oscillation. This means that the eleven year period is built up two parts, i. e., damped and undamped. The characteristic constant of these periods are follows. the theory of the origin of eleven year period can be divided roughly into two class. One of them results to the internal mechanism of the sun, such as pulsation and the other to the external effect, such as planet. But the result of the present analysis suggest that the both theory is collet. Namely, the eleven year period is the resonance phenomena of the periodicity due to the internal mechanism of the sun and the external effect such as Jupiter though it is not conclusive.
To seek the periodicity of air temperature the author calculated some correlation coefficients. The materials in use are the meteorological records extending over the period more than 55 years observed at Hirosima, Wakayama, Kyôto, Tôkyô, Hakodate and Nemuro. The correlation coefficient between the mean annual temperatures considered at time s (measured in year) and at an interval of time i later is where Δθ is the difference between the average temperature taken over the whole period and the mean temperature of an year considered. The obtained results are as follows: γ27 and γ31 take the relatively high negative values and γ24 relatively high positive values. Above all γ27 take -0.42_??_-0.47 expect γ27 obtained at Hakodate.