Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II
Online ISSN : 2186-9057
Print ISSN : 0026-1165
ISSN-L : 0026-1165
Volume 19 , Issue 2
Showing 1-5 articles out of 5 articles from the selected issue
  • H. Hujiwara, K. Yamamoto
    1941 Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 35-43
    Published: February 05, 1941
    Released: February 05, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The transmitter which is used for radio-tracking must be constructed as light as possible yet to have sufficient transmitting power. In this paper such transmitter is investigated.
    The oscillator circuit is usual tuned-plate grid type and the oscillator valve is type 30. The voltage of the battery to heat the filament is 2 volts, its capacity and weight are 2 A. H and 80 gr. respectively. The plate voltage is 50 volts which is supplied by buzzer transformer and the source of primary coil is common with that of filament. Total weight of our transmitter is only 250 gr. The frequency of the radio wave is 15 megacycles, and the wave can be catebed within 30km. by means of our direction finder.
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  • S. Syõno
    1941 Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 44-58
    Published: February 05, 1941
    Released: February 05, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Chapter 4. Discussion of barotopic and baroclinic terms. In the present chapter, we discussed the baroclinic and barotropic terms which play importantroles in our wave theory of vortices. When the troposphere is continuous medium, the baroclinic term is devided into three parts: Suffices 0 and H are used to denote quantities at the earth surface and tropopause. Using IpP and IpH and (21.9) in chapter 2, we can shaw that cyclones with large longitudinal temperature gradient develop or decay according as their eastside is warmer and colder than the westside, on the other hand, those with latitudinal temperature gradient do not change their intensity even though the gradient is large. This phenomenon predominates in middle latitude. It is recently remarked in our meteorological school. Next we derived the formula for the case where transitional layer of discontinuous surface exist in the troposphere. Using the following values: R=2.9×106C. G. S., g=980C. G. S., pM=200m. mHg, TM=220°, T=250°, H=106cm the ratios between IpP, IpH and ItT become as follows:
    The harotropic term is devided into seven parts:
    where
    We discussed the above terms briefly and compared with Diness statistics aboutupper atmosphere.
    Chapter 5, Anticyclone. Comparing with temperature distribution in the upper atmosphere with our results, we cansee that the high belt of middle latitude is caused by KTH and from which the former has close relation with the inclination of the tropopause. The large Siberian anticyclone is considered to be caused by KtT. From the above result we remarked tdat the travelling anticyclone which starts from the Siberian anticlone in winter is decayed by heating action by various causes and that is questionable that the low travelling anticyclone transforms into the high warm anticyclone.
    Chapter 6. A Type of Formation of Depression of Middle latitude. The depresion of middle latitude is considered to grow from the instability wave on the polar front by Norwegian meteorologists. In spite of success in verifying the existence of the instabilty waves by shearing instability at a surface of discontinuity, they can not analyze mathematically and physically the ewolution from vave to vortex Even though all cyclones of middle latitude do not birth on the polar front, it is recognized that many cyclones birth on the front or frontal zone. In the present chapter, we give the interpretation of the evolution from wave to vortex, but our theory is not confined to the case of wave. The pressure of the upper atmosphere decrease from equator to pole and in the middle latitude where gradient is very large, or IpP and IpH have large negative value and the longitudinal pressure gradient is very small. Now, if the boundary surface between two different air masses which lie side by side along the latitude is affected by any disturbance, e. g. an instabilty wave due to Godske and others, the longitudinal temperature gradient in the lower atmosphere increase. When the temperature gradient is from east to west, ∂T0/∂y is positive. The baroclinic terms increase in their absolute values and the signs are negative. Then the vorticity of vortical wave intensify in cyclone sence. by the result of chapter 2 (2.19). This is the evolution of cyclone from wave to vortex. Thus the instability wave is not a necessay condition for the formation of cyclone. Further a depression may be able to birth on the fornt or frontal zone when any disturbance comes in theupper atmosphere over there. The formation of family of depressions is easily understand from our stand point.
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  • K. Takahasi
    1941 Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 58-72
    Published: February 05, 1941
    Released: February 05, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Characteristic natures of the alternation of spring weather in the Far East Asia were investigated and the results are summarized as follows.
    1) Mean velocities of the motions of cyolone, anticyclone, rainy region, line of discontinuity and yellow sand are calculated and it is shown that the movement of lines of discontinuity and yellow sand are quite differnt from the others.
    2) The velocity of cyclone is determined by up, er air current and nature of frontal zone between two air masses. When the effect of frontal zone is predominated, the cyclone is considered as to be the wavy motion of the frontal zone. This is treated mathematically under a simple assumption and travelling of cyclone towards east is proved.
    3) The motions of discontinuity and yellow sand are determined by out flow of cold air from Asiatic continent and its motion is calculated.
    4) Characteristic nature of the season is oscillative change of various meteorological elementswhich can be explained by the wavy movement of frontal zone between Ogasawara and Siberia air masses.
    5) It is shown that there is a special weather which can be considered as a diffusing phenomena of Ogasawara air mass in horizontal direction and the amount of precipitation is calculated by solving the equation of diffusion and the results are satisfactory.
    6) Statistics of characteristic weather for various air masses are made.
    7) Structure of the typical cyclone of the season is investigated and it is founl tbat it resembles to the eyclone in Europe as a whole, but the direction of movement is different, hence the alternation of weather due to the passage of the cyclone is rather different from that in Europe.
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  • H. Matui
    1941 Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 72-76
    Published: February 05, 1941
    Released: February 05, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, the present author studied quantitatively the atmospheric impurities in the central part of Tokyo during April, 1939-March, 1940.
    The outer air was sucked by the water-pump through the fine glass filters making sufficiently fine bubbling in distilled water. Chloride, sulphuric acid, ammonia and nitrite contained in the atmosphere were chemically estimated in water through which the air-bubbles had been passed.
    The chief results obtained are as follows:-
    ξChloride. 1. The yearly average; 7.68γ/m3 as Cl.
    2. There was a negative correlation between the chloride content and the humidity of the atmosphere.
    ξSO2(and H2SO4)-Sulphur. 1. The yearly average; 22.20γ/m3.
    2. Sulphuric acid content was lamer in winter than in summer.
    ξAmmoniacal Nitrogen. 1. The yearly average; 14.92γ/m3.
    2. In the annual variation a maximum occurred in June and a minimum in January. There was a parallelism between the yearly variation of ammonia and the air temperature.
    ξNitrite Nitrogen. 1. The yearly average; 2.68γ/m3.
    2. The annual variation of nitrite was quite similar to that of sulphuric acid.
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  • K. Ito
    1941 Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 76-81
    Published: February 05, 1941
    Released: February 05, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The number of smoke particles and the shade number of air filter were observed at the Oosaka Branch Observatory of the Central Meteorological Observatory at the same time from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1938. Though these two values mainly express the concentration of smoke particles, there are found many interecting relations when observed in detail.
    (1) There is on close correlation between the smoke particles and the shade number of air filter, but the coefficient is positive.
    (2) This coefficient is maximum at 8 o'clock and minimum at 20 o'clock and[Rs, b]8h>[Rs, b]12h>[Rs, b]16k>[Rs, b]20h>0 as shown in Fig. 1.
    (3) The observed values are shown in the Fig. 2, and the points in this figure are distributed somewhat widely.
    (4) There are almost no observation in the range of smoke particles from 0 to 50 particles per c. c., but 0-shade of air filter was observed frequently.
    (5) The results are shown in the figure 2.
    (6) As I have stated above, there are many particles whose colour is not black, and there are diurnal variation of double maxima and minima for the number of these particles in the atmosphere.
    (7) The rate of the increase of the number of the smoke particles for the 1 difference of the shade number of air filter is maximum at 8 o'clock, and minimum at 20 o'clock.
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