Take any three points F, T and E in the earth's atmosphere, and a point O'on its surface. Define a system of rectangular coordinates X1, Y1 and Z1 with its center at F, with X1 axis drawn towards the Sun. Resolve the direct insolation reaching F into two plane polarized rays; the one travels to X1 and oscillates in Z1 direction, which is denoted by (1), the other travels to X1 and oscillates in Y1, which is denoted by (2). The primary scattered ray generated at F when (1) encounters one air particle at F, travels in FT direction and oscillates in a direction normal to it. FT direction is denoted by X2 and the direction of oscillation by Z2 and determined by X1, Y1, Z1 and the positions of F and T. This scattered ray is denoted by E1. The primary scattered ray generated at F when (2) encounters one air particle at F, travels in FT direction and oscillates in a direction normal to FT. This direction is denoted by Z2' and determined by X1, Y1, Z1, F, and T. This scattered ray is denoted by E1'. E1 travels in FT direction and is scattered at T when it encounters one air particle there. This secondary scattered ray is denoted by E2 and its direction of oscillation by Z3. In the same way, the secondary scattered ray which is caused by the scattering of E1' at T, is denoted by E2' and its direction of oscillation by Z3'. Furthermore, E2 and E2' are scattered at E and the resulting tertiary scattered rays E3, reach O'. If ω1 ω1', ω2, ω2', ω3 and ω3' are respectively the angle between FT and Z1, FT and Y1, TE and Z2, TE and Z2', EO' and Z3, EO' and Z3', then the phase function in the tertiary scattering is expressed by Π3n=1sin2ωn+3Πn=1sin2ωn'.
The crystal structure of silver iodide produced by an aerosol generator was studied with the aid of an X-ray diffractometer. The aerosols produced by the vaporization of a mixture of silver iodide and potassium iodide consisted of the hexagonal silver iodide (β-AgI) and some complex, such as KAg3I4. Little trace of potassium iodide was detected in the aerosols. The aerosols produced by the vaporization of an iodide ion-rich silver iodide sample consisted mainly of the hexagonal form. On the other hand, the aerosols produced from a sample with an excess of silver ion consisted mainly of the low-temperature cubic form of silver iodide (γ-AgI). The low-temperature cubic form of silver iodide was found to be more efficient in icenucleating than the hexagonal form. The different efficiency could be explained in terms of the misfit of the crystal againt ice.
During the period of heavy and concentrated snow-or rainfall in the Hokuriku District, vortical mesoscale disturbances have often been observed by radar. These vortical disturbances are characterized by a diameter of about 50 to 80km, which is 100 times as large as that of tornado, and one order of magnitude smaller than that of typhoon, and may be classified as mesocyclone. Radar observations show the remarkable spiral or ring-shaped radar echoes corresponding to vortical disturbances. They usually develop off the coast. move across the plain and disappear in the mountain area of the Hokuriku District, having the lifetime of several hours. Further, it was found that the heavy and concentrated snow-or rainfalls sometimes took place along the track of these vortical disturbances, and that the intensity of precipitation may be estimated by means of wind divergence and the concept of vortical rain like the rain due to typhoon.
An observation program was made to record cloud distribution over the Pacific Ocean, utilizing a 16mm time-lapse movie camera from an airplane along a routine flight course. As a test run for this observation flight, cloud distributions between Tokyo and Sado Island were observed. The result of the observation agrees very well with that predicted by synoptic considerations. It is therefore expected that the method planned will be useful in the observation of the cloud distribution over the Pacific Ocean where detailedweather maps are not available.
Wind tunnel experiments have been carried out to determine the design of a barometric sensor insensitive to high winds, particularly from necessity for cosmic ray observations. Four different types of models are tested in the wind tunnel of Japan Meteorological Agency for a wind speed range up to 40m/sec, One of them is found to keep the pressure deviation coefficient C in an aerodynamic equation ΔP=C1/2ρV2 always within 0.04 in absolute value, corresponding to a pressure deviation of 0.4mb at 40m/sec, for a zenith angle range of ±40°and for an azimuth angle range of ±20°.