Absorption of solar radiation by water vapour in the atmosphere has been studied using vaiues of absorption coefficient which were mainly computed by us, and were in part supplemented with values measured by Hettner and Fowle in the regions of weak bands and of weak edges of strong bands. First, for the stratosphere and troposphere the formulae for absorption per unit volume at any height with any zenith distance of the sun were obtained individually. Assuming appropriate values for water vapour contents in the stratosphere and troposphere, values of absorption per unit volume were computed from the formulae for the stratosphere and troposphere. Then the total absorption of the air column along the solar ray from the top of the atmosphere to any height was obtained. The results were compared with the observations. The calculated values of the total absorption are slightly smaller than the observed values of Fowle, but they are nearly in agreement with those of Kimball and Hoelper. Finally a chart is shown by which we can know the total absorption of the air column, its base being at any height and its axis along the solar ray and the rate of temperature rise of the air column.
We nade observations of the atmospheric nuclei at the sea coast near Sendai and found that these nuclei contain sea-salt and that their size distribution is expressed by the simple formula n0r03=C, where n0Δr0 is the number of sea-salt nuclei which are contained in 1cc of the atmosphere and whose radii range from(r0-Δr0/2) to (r0+Δr0/2) and C is expressed by C=2.2W×102, where W is the amount of sea-salt in 1cc of the atmosphere. The variation of the relative humidity H in equilibrium with the sea-salt srop is wxpressed by the empirical formula H=1-0.52c, where c is the ratio of the weight of dissolved sea-salt to that of water in the sea-salt drop. By using the above two formulae we obtained a new formula expressing the opacity Χ in terms of relative humidity over the sea surface except near the industrial area. This formula is given by whrer Χp is the opacity due to non-hygroscopic particles, ρ0 the density of sea-salt and A is a numerical factor (about 9.5) depending on the wave length of light. Furthermore it was found that by inserting reasonable values for C and χp the result of observation at Valentia can be explained well by the above formula.
The author studied the fluctuation of the stock prices in Kyoto, and found the following experimental formula: xn:stock price, _??_: mean value of xn. On the other hand, considering the equation we can make _??_minimum by replacing In consequence, yn is independent and may be assumed to be distributed normally. By studying statistically the relation between yn and atmospheric pressure, or meteorological front, the author noticed that yn is affected by these atmospheric phenomena.