In Section 2 the linearized form of equations, in which we used pressure as the vertical coordinate, has been analyzed as an initial value problem for the five cases of the 2-, 6-, 10-, 14- and 20-level models. It is found in the 20- level model that (1) the vertical velocity in the stratosphere has an opposite sign with that in the troposphere, (2) the sensible heat flux due to disturbance is northward not only in the lower troposphere but also in the stratosphere, separated by the southward flux in the intermediate zone. By means of the less detailed model, where the number of the information levels is less than ten, the characteristic features in the stratosphere mentioned above can not be well demonstrated. It has also been analyzed the second derivative of the kinetic energy with respect to time to examine how the instability of the disturbance differs with the different numbers of the information levels. In Section 3 we have first introduced the new vertical coordinate s= (ρ/ρ0)1/2, and then performed the same kind of analysis as we did in Section 2. The use of the s-coordinate has an advantage in a sense that the characteristic features in the stratosphere mentioned before can easily be reproduced by the 4-level model.
In this paper we shall present the spectrum analysis of two kinds of kinetic energy interaction terms, one being the interaction between the zonal flow and a disturbance with a given wave number, and the other the non-linear interaction between the disturbance in question and disturbances of all other wave numbers. It is revealed that the former interaction has no definite period, whereas the latter shows two distinct periods, one each for 10 days and for 20 days.
The two kinds of effect on total ozone amount, one due to tropospheric and lower stratospheric disturbance and the other due to middle stratospheric disturbance, have been studied by examining the correlation coefficients between ozone (O3) and 500mb height (H) and between ozone and 30-100 mb thickness (Z), at Edmonton for the period from Jan.‘59 to Dec. ’61. The seasonal characters of ozone variations are discussed with regard to the tropospheric and lower stratospheric disturbance as well as to the middle stratospheric disturbance. The multiple correlation coefficients of O3 on H and Z are 0.7-0.8 for the daily values and 0.6-0.7 for the day-to-day changes through the year. Then, as an example of the ozone-middle stratosphere relation, the ozone changes at Goose Bay and Edmonton during the stratospheric sudden warming in Jan. 1963 are studied. The ozone changes at different heights in late winter are examined by using the 11 vertical ozone distributions which were obtained by ozonesondes at Goose Bay in Jan. to Mar. 1963.
All the data of beryllium-7 in air and rain produced by the interaction of cosmic ray with atmospheric constituents are surveyed from the viewpoint of their meteorological application as a tracer material. It is found that (1) the seasonal variation in concentration of Be7 in rain is similar to that in air on the ground, (2) the similar but timely shifted seasonal variation which has a peak concentration in winter is evident in the upper atmosphere, and (3) the latitudinal distribution in Be7 deposition which has a peak accumulation in middle latitudes is discernible. Mean residence or removal times of Be7 in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere are derived to be about forty days and several months respectively. These appearances are in good accordance with those found out in distribution and transfer of fission products in the atmosphere.
theoretical investigations have been made since the socalled Monin-Obukhov function was introduced on the vertical profiles of wind and temperature in the atmosphere near the ground. It is, however, shown to be hardly conceivable that essential developments beyond Monin-Obukhov's theory have been made by these theoretical works, and it would be difficult to state clearly which one of them is most superior. It is also shown that the general tendency of the Monin-Obukhov function does not vary so sensitively to the various assumptions on the mixing length that the similar expressions to those which Monin-Obukhov obtained may be reached by the use of the different assumptions in the very stable, nearly neutral and very unstable regions of atmosphere. Although many experimental works have obtained the “log+linear” law in the nearly neutral region, they are not necessarily useful to verify, at the present stage, the similarity hypothesis proposed by Monin-Obukhov, and further precise observations will be needed.
Preliminarily collision-coalescences between a large water drop and water droplets under free fall were observed. Movements of the droplets due to the effect of the large water drop were also observed. The main experiment was performed by the use of a large water drop and droplets under free fall at terminal velocity, and it was proved that collision-coalescences occurred between them under the condition similar to natural rainfall. The size of the water drop and the size range of the droplets used were 6.2mm and 80 microns to 200 microns in diameter respectively. Droplets which collided with a drop as they fell in front of the drop were all captured by the drop and no repulsion was observed between them. It was observed that smaller droplets behind a large drop were not captured by the latter because of the wake effect. Furthermore, collisions or coalescences between droplets were not observed within the large drop's wake.
The data of observation in mountain cloud (stratus) in the afternoon at Sugadaira (Naganoken) on 11 Mar. 1963 are studied in detail. Condensation nuclei were detected above about 1% in supersaturation degree and the growth of cloud droplets is illustrated well using different formulae provided that cloud droplets (about 2 microns in radius) appeared from the same air mass.