The deviation of the plumb line are expressed by the well known formulae where ψ, λ and A are latitude, longitude and azimuth, respectively, reckoned in the usual manner; the indices a and g stand for “astronomical” and “geodetic” respectively. These quantities are shown in Table I, Chapter I. A glance at these results readily shows that the astronomical latitudes are generally greater than the geodetic latitude, while on the contrary, the astronomical longitudes are generally smaller than the geodetic longitude. Although the deviation of the plumb line at any given station is affected by local attraction of the surrounding mass, they are still too large and too systematic to be interpreted as arising solely from these local topographic effect. The larger part occured in all probability from errors with respect to the situation, shape and dimension of the reference ellipsoid we have taken in the geodetic work in Japan. There are several causes other than those here mentioned, which are generally different according to the type of adopted triangulation system, so that in Chapter I, these are fully examined for triangulation net. Then in Chapter II, the writer intended to obtain the most reliable reference ellipsoid which may represent the geoid in Japan. In Chapter III, some geophysical consideration was made on the residual. When redution is made in this way there is found some regularity in the distribution of the deviation of the plumb line which is geophysically of great interest. Notwithstanding the reference ellipsoid, which I have taken as most suitable for geoid in Japan, is more or less uncertain owing to the fact that the distribution of the astronomical stations are so limitted in the small area, it was perceived that this regularity is not disturbed. The principal facts which were obtained are as follows: i) The plumb line are always strongly attracted toward inland side from the sea side. There is no exception for Japan proper or Kyûsyû, Fig. 2. ii) Examining the deviation of the plumb line and the gravity anomaly in Kwantô region, the close connection can be found for such small area. Compare Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. iii) Drawing the undulation of geoid, it is apparent that, (Fig. 7), (a) At north eastern Japan, the height of geoid above the reference ellipsoid is relatively higher than that of south-west Japan. (b) The ridge of highest geoid runs parallel to the zone of maximum gravity, and it does not proceed to south-west Japan. It seems that the crustal structure of these two regions are very different, and probably, the depth of the earth's crust at north-east Japan is relatively shallow compared with that of south-west Japan. iv) Coirecting the effect due to topography for a distance of 1104km from the observed point, Fig. 11, it is concluded that the isostasy is apparently holding for Japan also.
I. The method of determination of dissolved oxygen, proposed by Winkler, is based on the determination of manganic oxide, produced from manganous oxide by the oxidative action of dissolved oxygen. In his method, iodometry is adopted. The writer adopts permanganometry: Dissolved oxygen is fixed by Mn++ and alkali, the manganic oxide is reduced with sulphuric acid and excess of oxalic acid, and the remaining oxalic acid is determined with permangante. In this case no heat is necessary, as the acidified solution contains excess of Mnt++(Skrabal). The normal solutions of oxalic acid and permangante are commonly used for the dissolved organic matter. Corrections for reducing constituents of water, such as organic matter, Fe++ and NO2- can be made. II. To obtain the degree of saturation of dissolved oxygen, vappur pressure correction is to be applied for the solubility data such as those of Fox or of Jacobsen. When the barometer stands at 760mm, Whipple and Whipple's table can be used, but in general we need the value of (p-e)/P or 1-(e/P) where P and e denote barometric pressure and vapour pressure. A table of this correction to the third decimals, over the range of 0°-30°C and 600-780mm is given.
W. B. Schostakowitsch found 3, 6, 11, 18 and 29 year periods and 2.8, 5.1 and 25.6 day periods in various natural phenomena, for examples, number of sun spot, atmospheric temperature and other meteorological elements, earthquakes, biological phenomena and so on. He attributed these periods to the periodic variation of sun spot. The late Prof. T. Terada has shown that quasiperiodicity of 3-4 days or 3-4 years which is due to the quite at random fluctuation appears in various natural phenomena which have actually no physical periodicty. The present authors doubted whether Schostakowitsch's periods are real or appearent arising from his anslysis. Accordingly, they tried the same method of analysis to two at random series which have no real periodicity and found 3.0, 6.9, 11.4 day or year periods for one series and 2.8, -5.7, 11.6 day or year periods for an other series which are very near his perids. Hence, it is very probable that some or many of Schostakowitsch's periods are rather due to the method of analysis than to the solar activity.
The present authors have made the experiments of the evaporation by the open pan evaporimeter which is used generally in meteorological observatory and other three types of evaporimeters: namely the evaporimeter made by Fujiwhara and Takahasi (see Fig. 1 & 2) which was previously reported in this magazine, the porousporeclain atmometer by Livingston (Fig. 4) and the cylindrieal filter paper atmometer by Daigo with principle of Livingston's atmometer (Fig. 5). The results of experiments showed that the amounts of evaporations of these evaporimeters were linearly eorrelated each other. It was also found from the experiments that differences of amounts of evaporations of various evaporimeter were caused mostly by differences of absorption of radiation. Therefore the color of evaporating surfaces or of mounting of evaporimeter itself should be kept as constant as possible.
Various types of atmometers have been devised and described from time to time, but the types of atmometers which have been used generally throughout the ecological world in Japan are spherical porous-poreclain atmometer by Livingston and filter paper atmometer by Hirata. In this paper are reported the new atmometer which improved upon two atmometers. I Mounting and use of the new atmometer. The new atmometer consists from following two parts. grass reservior and cylindrical filter paper for Soxhle-extractor use (see Fig. 1 & 2) The cylindrical filter paper is 35mm in outside diameter and 150mm high, the top closed and rounded, the bottom open and submerged into the water of reservior, and the glass reservior is 70mm in outside diameter and 26mm high. The length of cylindrical filter papre and the diameter of glass reservior should be taken suitable ones according to evaporating power and purpose of measurement. Evaporation occurs from the outer surface of the cylindrical filter paper and water moves with evaporating up from the reservior below. Readings are secured from time to time by weighing the amount of water lost from the reservior during the observeation period. In this instrument is to be used only distilled water and some formaldehyde added to the water used for storage hinders the development of fungi. II Simple experiments for the new atmometer. As the results of simple experiments to the difference of eveaporating faculty from individual instrument or level of water in the reservior orusing or inclining of the instrument have been knowm that the new atmometer is excellent to measure evaporating power in the air (see table 1, 2, 3 & 4). III Comparison with the new atmometer and other atmometer by same principle. Chief excellent properties of the new atmometer are as follows. (1) The new atmometer is cheap in fabrication and the handling and use are simplest. (2) Evaporating faculties of each atmometers are possible to keep uniform under the constant condition by renewing the cylindrical filter paper. Therefore it is unnecessary that as such Livingston's atmometer. etc. every reading from atmometer in use is to be multiplied by the correction coefficient and frequent restandardization of the atmometer is desirable. (3) This atmometer is far more sensitive to small differences in micro-climate by changing the size of reservior and cylindrical filter paper than is any other atmometer for ecological research use. As defects of this atmometer it may be taken in consideration at first that measurement of the amount of true evaporation in rainfall time is impossible as like other any evaporimeters and moisture content in the upper and lower parts of the cylindrical filter paper differs. but the later defect is often significant when the atmometer was compared with plant physiology. The result of measurement of evaporation when it is rained during the observation period. has been corrected by otherwise mounted atmometer of which is not reached cylindrical filter paper to bottom of glass reservior, to measure the amount of rain water penetrating in to the reservior.
Geographical and geological discriptions, together with the historical reviews of the volcanic activities since 9th century of the Mt. Yake-yama (Yake: to burn, yama: mountain) in Niigata prefecture are given Logarithmic equations representing the curves of the vertical sections of the mountain are numerically given. The temperature of the fumarole at the height of 2200 metre above the sea-level, is measured and found to be 99.1°C. The greater part of the fumarole gas is water vapour (as much as ca. 97%) and among other constituents of which carbon dioxide predominates the proportion of H2S to SO2 is determined: the gas is passed immediately into the aqueous suspension of CdCO3 or ZnCO3 and the resulting sulphite and sulphide are separated and analyzed gravimetrically as BaSO4 respectively. The percentage composition is found as follows: CO2 89.6; N2 3.7, H2S 5.4, SO2 1.1, O2 0.3; CO, CH4 and CnH2n nil. The activity of this volcano seems to be in the course of decay.
If the partial potential temperatures and water vapor contents for an aerological sounding are plotted against each other on the equivalent potential temperature diagram, one obtains the characteristic curve for this air column. Some important properties of these curves have been derived by Prof. C. G. Rossby(1). The representation of upper air temperatures by the metheod of the emagram is, from the thermodynamical aspect, the best that has yet been proposed. The characteristic curve. which ordinarily accompanies it, is a practical means of representing the conservative properties of the individual air masses. The characteristic curve proves to be of great importance thermodynamically and may serve for the estigram(2)