The psychrometric formula is, in its simplest form, f=F-A(t-t')B, (1) in which t is the air temperature, t' the temperature of the wet-bulb-thermometer, f the tension of aqueous vapour in the air, F the vapour tension, saturated at t', B the barometric pressure and A the psychrometric constant. The psychrometric constant A is usually calculated by A=F-f/B(t-t'), (2) observing the actual vapour tension by a dew point hygrometer parallel with a psychrometer. In the determination of A by Regnault Angot and others the difference of the saturated vapour tension of water and of ice was not taken into account. In the case when the wet-bulb was covered with ice the vapour tension of supercooled water was used for F in the above formula. This is by no means allowable. In the days of these authors the determination of ice vapour was not yet carried out, though Kirchhoff pointed out the existence of the difference between the saturated tension of water and of ice vapour. Recently Georgii proposed to use 600/680 A for A in the case under consideration, taking into account the difference of the latent heat of vaporization of water and of ice. But by this we can not get off the difficulty mentioned above. In the present note it is proposed to make a new determination of A in the formulae (1) and (2) using the value of the vapour tension of ice precisely measured by Scheel and Heuse.
The observations of colour of the sky have been carried out since April 1930 at the Central Meteorological Observatory and also since May 1931 at the Utunomiya Meteorological Station by means of the “Ostwald-Linkesche Himmelsfarbenskala” (Met, Zeit. Bd. 45, S. 367, 1928). According to the statistics of observations it appears that in both places the colour of the sky is bluer in autumn and winter than that of the spring and summer. As to the daily change, the sky is bluer in the afternoon than in the morning in Tokyo, but at Utunomiya the daily change is not conspicuous. In the mean, the colour at Utunomiya is about 1.4 degree bluer than that of Tokyo.
Discussions of the comparison of the solar-and-sky radiation received on the horizontal surface at the Central Meteorological Observatory of Tokyo (ψ35°41′N, λ=139°46'E) and Kumagaya Meteorological Station (ψ=36°9'N, λ=139°29'E) are given. The instruments are of Robitzsch's self-recording actinograph, the material used being one year, viz., from January to December 1931. From the present investigation the following conclusions were derived. (1) The ration of the intensity of radiation for Kumagaya to that of Tokyo shows relatively large values in the morning and becomes smaller in the afternoon. (2) The ration of the daily total amount of radiation in boty places becomes relatively large in winter and small in summer. This is mainly due to the difference of cloud amount in both places. (3) The ratio of the intensity of radiation becomes larger and larger as the cloud amount increases. (4) Genberally, when the wind direction is south the ratio of the intensity of radiation is small compared to the case of northward wind direction. In winter, however, the relation is reversed, which may be attributable partly to the abundance and dust in the city of Tokyo.
Existence of a layer of magnetic substance is assumed under the surface of the earth giving some reasons for that. The diurnal change of the earth-magnetism is based upon the change of the permeability of this magnetic substance by the influence of the sun and moon
Here I have treated the effect of the daily and annual changes of temperature on the deformation of the earth crust, approximately, and I have concluded that: (I) There are also the daily and annual changes of the deformation of the earth crust. (II) The magnitudes of deformation at the surface are at most 10-3 cm for a day and 10-1 cm for a year. (III) The magnitude of deformation decreases as the depth increases. (IV) The phase difference between each harmonic of the temperature and the deformation is π/4, i. e., 3 hours for the daily change and 1 1/2 months for the annual change. (V) The thermal stress is negligibly small in the interior of the earth.
The influence of gravity on simple Rayleigh waves was first treated by Bromwich, assuming the material is imcompressible in order to avoid the mathematical difficulties. Following the usual method, he made one modification, viz., the normal traction on the mean free surface has to be sufficient to support the weight of the harmonic inequality, instead of vanishing. In this paper, the problem is treated in different ways, using the ordinary method for an imcompressible fluid under the influence of gravity, in hydrodynamics. Further the present author intended to discuss the influence of gravity on surface (both Rayleigh and Love) waves in cylindrical co-ordinates. The results obtained are quite similar with those obtained by Bromwich
When an aeroplane flies over undulating land surface the aerodynamical forces that act upon it are different from those experienced over plain. The aeroplane seems to be repulsed when it approaches to a mountain and attracted when it crosses over a valley. This phenomenon is explained hydrodynamically and the general expressions for the forces are obtained assuming the aeroplane as a point-vortex.
It is a well known fact that when a jet of air is flown into the mouth of an organ pipe, a tone of definite pitch is produced, causing standing oscillation of the air column in the pipe, and analogous phenomenon may be expected to happen in case of liquid. Thus, a current rushing past by a bay laterally may become a sourse of excitation of secondary undulations in it. The result of observations made by some Japanese investigators seems to justify the above view. In this paper, is proposed an explanation of this phenomenon.
In this paper, correlation between the yield of rice-crop and the summer mean temperature was determined. The correlation coefficient is 0.66 as a whole, and the more close relation is seen in the north part than the south district of the country. Standard deviations of the yield of rice-crop and of the summer mean temperature in recent 20 years were investigated.