Even in the present times, a micro chemical determination of nitrate is not an easy problem. Almost all of the methods now usually adopted, have many difficulties on the preparations of reagents and the analytical processes. A chief and common demerit of these methods is a necessity of a largequantity of concentrated sulphuric acid. Sulpuhric acid, completely free from even a minute quantity of nitrate, is too expensive to use it for daily routine works. The present autbor has prepared a next new reagent for this purpose. α-Naphtyl amine 1g. Sulphanylic acid 10g. Tartaric acid 88g. Zink dust 1 to 1.5g. Zink dust reduces nitrate to nitrite, and then the pink colour due to nitrite appears. Nitrite formerly present must be removed. There are two methods for the elimination of nitrite; the one is an oxydation with bromine, and the other is a destruction of it with sodium azide in an acidic solution.
The purpose of present study is to observe experimentally the relation between the growth of rice plants and their surrounding microclima. The observations were made in the rice fields at Harumati, near Hukuoka, which belong to the Department of Agriculture, Kyûsyû Imperial University. The results obtained may be briefly summarrized as follows:- (1) As is shown in Fig. 1. (a) (the mean temperature) and (b) (the relative humidity), the vertical distribution of the mean temperature and humidity varies from July to October. Throughout all months the humidity of air near the earth's surface shows a large percentage compared with that of the higher places. As to the mean temperature, however, it was not always so. (2) For the purposes of studying the diurnal variation of mean temperature and humidity, special screens for self-recording thermograph and hygrometer were installed at the lower (30cm above the earth surface) and the higher places (120cm above). The main feature of lower place was of higher humidity and lower temperature. (see Fig. 3 (a) and (b)). The time of occurrence of the maximum and minimum temperature nearly coincided at both levels. But the maximum of humidity at the lower place occured in the evening, while at the higher in the morning. On the other hand, the minimum humidity at both placesoccured in the same time. (3) Moreover the vapour pressure and the amounts of evaporation at the lower and upper places were calculated.
The energy of the general circulation of the atmosphere is mainly supplied by thermal energy, but in some parts of the circulation, say, in temperate latitudes, it is reasonable to consider that the energy of the circulation may be supplied by kinematical process of the earth's rotation. The kinetic energy of the earth's rotation is 242×1036 ergs and the dissipation in the earth's circulation is estimated by Brunt to be 5×107 ergs per m2 per sec. Thus the delay in the earth's rotation of 0.01_??_2 sec. per 100 years is sufficient enough to maintain the general circulation, assuming the total kinetic energy of the earth to be consumed for it. Next the thermal and dynamical energies in the equatorial circulation are compared and V. Bjerknes'model of circulation in temperate region is rejected by quantitative analysis.
(I) Theory on Propagation of Tunami Wave. Assuming that the tunami wave is appropriately the so-called long wave, its motion may be represented by the solution of where ζ is the elevation, h the depth and u the velocity. Now, for the sake of simplicity, we treat the periodic wave with period of2π/v only Thus the solution of the equation becomes of the form of f cos 2π (vt-φ). Then substituting it in (1) and putting both coefficients of cosine and sine to be zero, we get (2) is _??_ Hamiltonian equation for the long wave and shows that the wave propagates normally to the surface φ=const. (wave front) with the velocity of In this case the bay of variable depths may be a dispersive medium for the long wave. But if the variation of the depth with the horizontal distancemay be negligible within the range of a wave length, the equation (2) and the wave velocity becomes (∂φ/∂x)2+(∂φ/∂y)2=v2/gh and √gh respectively. Next. (3) indicates that the energy contained within a wave length is conservative and the average direction of flow of energy is normal to the wave front. Applying this theorem, the present author draw the curves showing the wave front by the method of Huygens' principle, and also the curves normal to the wave fronts. Then we calculated the flux of energy and found that the average of the wave is conservative and for wave height the Green's formulae of energy flow hold. The chart of the wave thus obtained indicates the energy distribution of the wave in the field. When the long wave progresses along a canal, and when the breadth of the canal is sufficiently wide compared with the wave length, the features of wave motion may be inferred by drawing the wave surfaces with the velocity of√gh. Then we shall understand directly from it that the energy of the wave flows towards both coasts of the canal and the most part of energy scarcely passes tbrough the canal regularly. But this is not the case when the breadth of the canal is comparable with the wave length, and the longer is the wave length, the closer the circumstances approach to the case which is applicable to the theory of narrow sea. Consequently, in this case, the wave front becomes nearly straight lines normal to the median line of the canal and its energy is accumulated in the deeper parts of the canal and the wave reaches far inner parts of it with a small loss of energy. Thus the fact that tunami which occured far off in the Pacific Ocean could arrive at Osaka through the long canal bearing violent damages, can be explained.
In winter, frequently we observe the developed monsoon wind blowing over the sea from the cold continents. And it is a well noted phenomenon that the cloud layer which is formed in the monsoon field increases its thickness both to the upper and lower sides as the distance from the seashore of Siberia increases. The present auther wished to explain the following problems: 1. The clouds are at first formed at the moderate height of the sky, at _??_ome distance from seashore, 2. The thickness of cloud layer increases both to the upper and lower sides as the distance from seashore increases, from the consideration that:- as the continental airmass moves on the sea being supplied much heat and water vapour it becomes gradually unstable and a thermal convection takes place and the clouds are formed. As to the process of monsoon the present author assumes some suitable conditions. And, by some fundamental equations of eddy-diffusion and of the evaporation formula (Dalton's), the distributions of temperature and water vapour are calculated and are shown in the graphic representation (fig. 2). In these discussions, the radiative transfer of heat is neglected because of its small quantity. And combining these two distributions, the present author shows in fig. 3 the distribution of relative humidity in the monsoon field, which will be said to give a fairly well explanation of the mechanism of cloud-formation in the field In addition the author makes some discussions about the instability of monsoon field and so on.
In this paper, the functional forms of applied statical force are of non-axial -symmetry at z=0, _??_=-F2(r) cos mθ sin mθ (m=any integer not equal to zero.) in cylindrical coordinates. At the boundary of two materials the components of displacement uz, ur, uθ limit to zero. Under these conditions the normal displacement uz is expre_??_sed in the following integral with some approximation, where H is the thickness of the surface layer and, where p and q are certain constants. If the force expressed by is applied, we get the following solutions:- and etc. The first terms of these solutions are the solutions which have been introduced in the case of semi-infinite elastic body, and the other terms are correction terms due to the boundary. If we put λ=μ p=5/9, q=4/9 are obtained and at the limits of H→o, displacements becomes clearly zero.
According to Vegard and others, the high atmosphere generally consists of Nitrogen crystals. These should act upon earth's magnetic field. In the present note, the author wished to put forward a consideration in order to explain quantitatively the duirnal variation of the magnetic field.