Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II
Online ISSN : 2186-9057
Print ISSN : 0026-1165
ISSN-L : 0026-1165
Volume 10 , Issue 12
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • M. Abe
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 667-670
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    On the summit of Mt. Fuji, the direction of wind is generally the west, but we have often experienced that the wind was east sometimes. Such east wind has been supposed to be due to the effect of contrary air current which is sucked up along the leeside mountain sloop in spite of the real wind direction, at this height, being the west.
    I tried to make an expriment to examine the figure of such air current in a wind channel by using a model of Mt. Fuji which is 1/10000 in real size.
    By this experiment, this air current was shown as an effect of being sucked up in the leeside of the mountain as we have supposed and this contrary wind, coming across the leeward mountain summit, occurs when the height of the windward mountain summit is not less than that of the leeward mountain summit, and it depends on neither the inclination of mountain sloop nor the existence of the crater.
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  • K. Wadati, K. Masuda
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 670-675
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    To see the general state of the seismic activity in the Kwantô-district, where is noted by the frequent occurrence of earthquakes and especially by the Great Earthquake of Kwantô (Sept. 1, 1923), North Idu (Nov. 26, 1930) and West Saitama (Sept. 21, 1931), the large earthquakes occurred in this district during the last 9 years are investigated about the position of their origins particularly taking account of the depth of focus.
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  • M. Kawano, G. Takata
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 675-679
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    From the observational data covering from 1930 to 1931, annual and daily variations of frequencies of fogs on the Hakone-range were investigated. The maximum was found to appear in July and the minimum in December. During a day, the maximum appeared in the morning and at night, the minimum in the daytime. This daily change was especially remarkable and regular in warm seasons.
    The relation between wind velocity and the rate of fog-formation was investigated and it was found that in warm seasons there was no regular relation but in cold seasons the fog appeared more frequently as the mean wind velocity increased.
    As for the wind directions, it was found that, in the morning and evening, fog appeared more frequently when the wind was from SW-WSW, while in the daytime fog was more frequent when the wind was from NE-ENE. It was also found that in warm seasons, more fogs were observed when the wind was from SW-WSW, while in cold seasons when the wind from NE-ENE.
    Lastly the temperature variation in fogs was investigated. When fogs with no rain lasted from morning till evening, the temperature changes was in averag 1°, 9C, for fogs with intermittent rain, the averge temperature changes was 2°, 3C, while when both fogs and rains continued from morning till evening the temperature changes was 3°, 0C in average.
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  • H. Hatakeyama, T. Ootani
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 679-685
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    The vertical structure of the typhoon was investigated from the pilot balloon observations within the area of 1625km radius. This area was divided into 96 segments by six concentric circles and sixteen radii.
    The circulation and divergence of air currents with respect to each segment were calculated from the mean velocity of the winds, which had been obtained in the first paper (Geoph. Mag. Vol. VI. No.I.). But neither circulation nordivergence were distributed systematically. The ascending and discendin currents in cach quadrant were calculated from the divergence of winds up to 4000 meters. The ascending current was predominating in NE and NW-quadrant within 1000km of radius. The discending current was most predominant in SW-quadrant without 600km of radius.
    The distribution of ascending currents in the typhoon were in good accord with that of rainy region and low clouds.
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  • H. Arakawa
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 685-691
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    The primary purpose of this paper is to give the statistical discussion on the relation between the elements observed by means of pilot balloons and the coming weather in such a way as to provide means for forecasting weather. To this end the data are presented in a series of tables containing information in considerable detail.
    (a) Turnng of winds with altitude from the surface direction and the coming weather.
    In Tables 1 and 2 are given, respectively, the frequency of clockwise and counterclockwise turning and the frequency of each turning bringing rain during the period of 24 hours after the time of observation in its train. In Tôkyô, clockwise turning is more frequent than counterclockwise, and there is a remarkable tendency that the percentage of coming rain during the period of 24 hours after the time of observation of clockwise turning is larger than that of counterclockwise turning. This law was formerly pointed out by Prof. F. M. Exner and ascertained by Dr. R. Sekiguti and Dr. Y. Horiguti, using only 10 observations at Kôbe, Japan; but in this paper more than 2000, observations were used.
    (b) Direction of wind at the level of 3000 meters and the coming weather.
    In Table 3 and 4, are given the frequency of upper air current from different directions and the frequency of current bringing rain during the period of 24 hours after the time of observation in its train. In Japan, the direction of upper air current is always from the west except short period in summer. But the author proved statistically, if the direction of free-air winds is E-ly, then it indicate, with no exception, fair weather during the following period of 24 hours at least.
    There is a remarkable tendency that, according to the direction of free-air winds at 3000 meters is whether with west to north-northwest or with west-southwest to south, the coming weather can be foreknown with sufficient accuracy for the “fair-weather method” which is the weakness of the observation of pilot-balloons as a means of upper-air exploration. The second law, formerlly reported by Prof. S. Fujiwhara, serves as a reliable guide for forecasting the weather of Tôkyô (35°41'N) Oosaka (34°39'N) and Hukuoka (33°35'N) and is not useful for forecasting the weather of Naha (26°12'N); hence it seems the second law is the sequence of the general circulation of the atmosphere as a whole.
    (c) Velocity of free-air wind at the level of 3000 meters and the coming weather.
    In Table 5 and 6 are given, the frequency of different velocities and the frequenency of winds bringing rain during the period of 24 hours after the time of observeation in its train. In Tôkyô, it seems the coming weather is fair if the uppper-air current speed is large enough. For the observations of hurricane, this law was, with no exception, ascertained. For the observations of Oosaka, Hukuoka and Naha, the data was too wanting to check this law.
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  • T. Iwasaki
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 691-703
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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  • K. Uwai
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 703-713
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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  • K. Takeda, S. Fujiwhara
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 713-715
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    The horizontal shift of the dislocation which accompanied the destructive K. Wanto earthquake of 1923 has been estimated to be 8 meters by Prof. Imamura and Mr. Kishinouye1) assuming the existence of a fault. This estimation is however somewhat doubtful.
    The method which prof. Imamura used for estimating the horizontal shift is as follows:
    First, stations which are situated on or near the straight line drawn at right angles to the assumed fault line through the point of its maximum shift were selected. Denothing the distance of any one of these stations from the assumed fault line by x, and the shift component at the station parallel to the fault line by y, two branches of curve showing the relation between x and y were obtained by plotting point (x, y) as shown in Fig. I. The intercept of the axis of y by these branches was thought to represent the amount of the maximum shift.
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  • H. Kurasige
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 715-726
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    1. Diurnal Change of O2 produced by Diatoms: As far as the present investigation was concerned, O2-production due to the photosynthetic reaction by Melosira italica and Synedra pulchella of 106 individuals per litre was about 0.36c.c. in a day when the amount of solar radiation was calculated between 500 to 600 gr. cal., cm-2. The diurnal variation of O2 at the indoor place avoiding the direct sunlight was not recognized in the daytime, while in the dark O2 decreased about 0.2c.c. per litre.
    2. Diurnal Change of O2 produced by Potamogeton crispus:- The O2-production due to Polamogeton crispus of 102 area of its leaf increased proportinally to the amount of the solar radiation for the corresponding unit time till the solar radiation rose to about 60 gr. cal., cm-2. and when the solar radiation became too striking (above 70 gr. cal.) the photosynthetic reactiog was weakened and O2-production decreased at the surface layer but in the 20cm. layer the grade of the harmful effect of the too strong solar radiation was weakened more or less.
    3. When it was much cloudy or rainy the O2-increase was scarcely recognized.
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  • H. Arakawa
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 726-730
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    In this paper, the author shows that, in Tòkyô, the atmospheric oscillation with period of more than eight minutes is generally associated with rain or snow, wave clouds and a surface of discontinuity extends near Tòkyô. The nature of a surface of discontinuity indicating a fairly close relationship with the barometric oscillation was examined in conjunction with the observations by means of pilot balloons and the synoptic charts; and it was concluded that the oscillation is caused by the surface of discontinuity influenced by the topography of Kwantô district. Some theoretical investigations on Helmholtz waves were also undertaken with the object of testing the above conclusions.
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  • S. Tajima
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 730-736
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    Recently, Dr. Asahina deviced a new method of measuring the temperature of upper air by a thermometer attached to a pilot-balloon specially constructed for the purpose. The experiments have been made by the present author to estimate the time-lag of that thermometer.
    When a thermometer with cylindrical bulb ascends in air with uniform velocity, the steady lag θ is shown to be aproximately as follows:
    -where c is the radius of cylinder, a2 the thermal diffusivity, G a constant to be properly determined by taking account the lapse-late and the speed of balloon. Also h is a constant associated with the state of the solid and its surface, assuming Newton's law of cooling,
    In this paper, the value of h has been determined experimentally by cooling the thermometer exposed to air-currents of various speeds.
    The value of θ is about 0.4_??_5ªC, when the lapse-late is 0.5ªC per 100 meters and the velocity of balloon 100 meters per minute.
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  • S. Nomura
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 736-743
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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  • K. Otubo
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 743-751
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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  • S. Yamaguti
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 752-756
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    I studied statistically the seasonal variation of the direction of the upper air current over Hukuoka, using the pilot-balloon observations for five years. On account of insufficiency of the data, I concluded only to that through all the seasons the winds, having the direction with north-west in clockwise sense on the earth surface, approach westerly wind turning with altitudes clockwise and the winds with west to north turning with altitudes counter-clockwise.
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  • K. Koenuma, S. Yamaguti
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 757-759
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    Using the result of pilot-balloon observations, we intended to find the relation between the rainfall and the discontinuous surface of the upper air current and obtained the result that in winter the rainfall was frequently observed during the period of 24 hours after the observation of discontinuous surface, but in summar the relation was not so decisive.
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  • T. Daiho, K. Kitamura
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 759-766
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    In the present paper, the authors examine the relation between the direction of free-air wind and the precipitation at Hukuoka during the period November 1930-October 1931. The result indicates a fairly close relationship between the southwesterly or south-southwesterly wind and the precipitation, as shown by Prof. Fujiwhara an others.
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  • S. Ikeno
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 766-770
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    In the present paper, the heights of the base of clouds are discussed from the statistical point of view, using the pilot balloon observations for the period 1926-1930 in Tokyo.
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  • H. Arakawa
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 770-798
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    This paper contains the results of observations of upper air current at selected atations in Japan. To this end the data are presented in a series of tables containing information in considerable detail.
    In working out this paper, grateful acknowledgement is due Prof. T. Okada and Prof. S. Fujiwhara for their kind encouragement. Hearty thanks is also due to Messrs. M. Tanimoto, H. Hatakeyama and T. Ootani who carried on some of the tedious work of compiling and reducing the data. Special appreciation is also expressed Misses. S. Koyama, E. Kobayasi and others for the patience, accuracy and fidelity with which they asisted this pains-taking work.
    The data used in this paper, are the results of the pilot-balloon observations made at the Central Meteorological Observatory and sotne of the selected stations in Japan as follows:
    Table I. List of Stations.
    The data are discussed under following chapters.
    I Percentage frequency of free-air winds from different directions.
    II Mean velocity of free-air winds from different directions.
    III Seasonal variation of the upper-air current.
    IV Daily variation of the upper-air current.
    V Relation between the upper-air current and the altitude.
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  • H. Arakawa
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 798-809
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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    In the present paper the author intends to discuss Love waves using the elliptic-cylindrical co-ordinates.
    In this case, the solutions have a singular plane with finite breadth 2c as a seismic focus and the waves of elliptic shape propagate outwards from the origin. But the waves propagate nearly circularly at the point whose horizontal distance from the centre of the focus is 4e or more. The nature of Love waves, that is the predominance of transverse component of the displacement is also deduced in this paper.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 809-810
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 811-812
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 812-813
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 813-814
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 814-815
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 815-816
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1932 Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 816-817
    Published: 1932
    Released: February 05, 2009
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