The radiation on the horizontal surface observed by the Robitzsch actinograph at several Meteorological Stations in Japan was shortly investigationed. The investigations were made reducing the position of the sun to the vernal equinox, and correcting the effect due to the water vapour by the Fowle's formulae. The incoming radiation linearly varies with the duration of sunshine or the cloud amount. Some seasonal variation in this linear relation can be conceived. The interference by the cloud is strongest in the case of lower clouds and weakest in that of upper ones. The degrees of this interference by each unit cloud amount are abort 43, 26 and 18 gram cal/cm2 day for lower, middle and upper clouds respectively. Beyond the cloud amount 8, this decay of radiation becomes suddenly remarkable. The radiation arriving on the horizontal surface is reduced about 58% of the incoming radiation, which seems to vary with latitude.
Relation between weather and yield of ramie has been frst investigated and then by considering the results of investigation were determined favourable zones for ramie culture as seen from the climatic environment in Japan proper. Statistical data of ramie culture in Japan was not given completely, therefore correlation coefficients between elimatic factors and yield of ramie were calculated from comparing with the climatic factors and ramie yield in the both years which differences of yield on that year and on the previous year are conspicuous positively or negatively The correlation coefficients are as shown in table 3, 4. & 5. The correlation coefficients indicate generally that relation between weather and yield of ramie in the southern part of Japan differs from that in the northern art. Namely, favourable weather for ramie culture in the southern part is rainy for that growth of ramie plant was not damaged by drought, while in the northern part is sunny for that temperature is enongh to growing the ramie plant. As the climatic environment in which ramie for fiber is cultivated favourably, are given high air temperature, moderate rainfall and high humidity throughout the growing season of ramie plant. From the local peculiarity of climatical suitability for ramie culture were determined 8 division in Japan proper as shown in Fig. 3.
It is very important to decide which theory is most advantageous among the three thories in the diurnal variation of the earth magnetic field. The author investigates the motion of electron in the ionosphere and obtains another drift current and conductivity to be unsymmetry tensor with nine components, from which those given by Pederson, parallel (σο) or perpendicular (σ_??_) to the magnetic field is deduced for a special case. Owing to the differences of the collisional and gyromagnetic frequencies, this newly introduced current and conductivity (σ_??_) due to positive and negative ions or electron, though having different signs, are not nil in all up to the height where the collisional frequencies are far lower compared with gyromagnetic, Considering the typical layer, we expand the conductivities in power series of sin θ or cos θ approximately and calculate the magnetic field produced by the atmospheric semi and diurnal oscillations. The theoretical field from σ_??_ shows too small amplitude ratio in diurnal harmonic and the phase lag as of old, while that from σ_??_, satisfactory accordance with the Chapman's analysis in amplitude ratio, but the phase difference is the great obstacle as it was. Drift current will be thought to be impossible to give an explanation, so far as this study is concerned, to the observed amplitude ratio and phase angles which are similar in all harmonics, … introduction of the new current is still worse.
Various quantities in meteorology have more or less the meaning of average and hence unavoidable fluctuations appear on account of the statistical meaning of the observation. These fluctuations are quite different from that of other various errors and it can never be removed by any way, and it is the natural limit of the accuracy of the observation. These limits of various quantities in meteorology, such as, pressure, temperature, wind velocity and so _??_n are calculated and it is found that these natural errors are comparable with errors of the present observation.
This paper is intended to investigate the gustiness of wind concerning the greatest wind velocity in a given time interval at the eastern place of the City from the records of the Dines pressure tube installed at the Oosaka Meteorological Observatory at Katuyama, Higasinari-ku. From the observational data during two years the gustiness of wind, which is defined as the ratio of the velocity of turbulence to the mean wind velocity V, is given statistically by the following empirical formulae. G=0.575-0.65/V……SWerly Wind G=0.432+0.152/V…NEerly Wind Then the instantaneous greatest wind velocity W is given by W=2.0+1.65(V-2)…SWerly Wind W=2.0+1.40(V-1.6)…NEerly Wind These formulae will be useful for the estimation of wind pressure upon the building, etc caused by the violent storm. At this station the gustiness is usually observed to be greater in the case of SWerly wind coming over the City than NEerly wind flowing over from the flat field. In the tormer case the gustiness becomes to be about 0.43 having a tendency of decreasing according as the wind velocity increases, while in the later case it attains as 0.50 as the mean and increases with the wind velocity. This character is distinctly different from the results obtained by Mr. T. Harata, N. Kitahara, and others by using the data of the western part of this City.