The change of the temperature of the traveling air mass may be expressed in first approximation by dθ/dt=-α(θ-_??_), whereθ is the temperature of the air mass, _??_the temperature of the earth's surface, α a constant. Hence, the temperature of the air mass is calculated by giving initial air temperature θ0 and distribution of the temperature of the surface. After some calculation we have θ=αθ0+b_??_, where a and b are constants which depend on t. Putting α=1.4 day-1 which is estimated by the analysis on synoptic chart, and t=24 hours we have θ(24h)=0.53θ0+0.47_??_(24h). That is to say, the temperature after 24 hours is given by averaging initial temperature of the air mass and the surface temperature at the point where the air mass will reach after 24 hours. And the above formula is confirmed by the actual data. The maximum temerature in a day is predicted from the results of aerological observation in early morning. It is derived theoretically that the maximum termperature θm is given in good approximation by θm=θh+c where θh is the upper air temparature about 1000m above the earth surfce, c a constant which depends on weather. The results are also confirmed by the actual data.
The author measured the velocity of the cloud particles falling in free air and obtained the radius of particles by applying Stokes' formula: υ=2ρg/9μr2, r=radius of cloud particle, 106×μ=177.0+0.44(t+10). The result thus obtained shows that the distribution of the masses of the cloud particles obeys the law of group distribution, as already pointed out by various authors. Besides, it is ascertained here that the group distribution may be classified into five families very distinctly, and the fact may be explained as due to the relation such that the mechanism of f_??_rmation of cloud particles varies with air mass conditions.
After the method of previous report in this magazine, we calculated the coefficient of correlation between the meteorological elements and the first date of breaking-up of hibernation for the bat (PI_??_PISTRELLUS ABRAMUS), snakes (MATRIX sp. & ELAPHE sp.), lizard (EUMECES sp.), and frogs (BUFO sp., HYLA sp. & RANA sp.) as shown in table 1, 2, 3, 4. By our calculation, it was shown that the date of breaking-up of hibernation is marked by temperature. Therefore, the higher temperature will hasten the date of breaking-up of hibernations. The rainfall and the duration of sunshine are not so effective as temperature.
The author intended to express the variation rate of the isophenes which was reported in this magazine. Let y be the date of phenologicaloc currence, _??_ the latitude, λ the longitude, and h the altitude of a station. The following assumption was made y=a+b(_??_-35°)+c(λ-135°)+dh Using the observed data, the values of constants in the mathematical expressions were computed for the animal phenology above mentioned. The results of computation were given in the table 1. The value of b decreases as month goes on from spring to summer, while, on the contrary, it increases in absolute value from summer to winter. The value of dt/dψ was calculated by the figure 2 and the dt/dψ diagram for temperature was obtained. This shows that the rate of dt/dψ is smaller in higher latitude and in higher temperature than in lower altitude and in lower themperature. This variation of dt/dψ has something common with b in animal phenology in Japan.
The instability (θ) of the yield of sweet-potato has been calculated by the following formula, for each prefecture in Japan proper. Where i and d is the rate of increased and decreased yield in each year respectively, and n is the number of the years of the time interval under consideration. Instabilities of the yield calculated for each prefecture, are as shown in table 1 and figure 1. Instability of the yield in the north-eastern provinces and the districts of Inland sea coast is generally large and that in the Kwanto district s small. It is due to the occurence of unseasonable low temperature end drought respectively that the instability of the yield in the northern part of Japan and the districts of Inland sea coast is larger than the other districts. That the instability of the yield in the Kwanto district is smaller than that in other districts, may be explained as due to the fact, that sweet potato _??_n the Kwanto district does not only so often suffer great injury by unseasonable low temperature and drought, but also other conditions than weather factors are more favourable for the sweet-potato culture than in other districts.
Symbols used:- Hc-Height of tropopause; Tc-Temperature at tropopause; P_??_-Atmospheric pressure at M. S. L.; θn-Temperature at a height n kms. Results obtained from sounding balloon ascents penetrating into the stratosphere over Batavia are well-known and often quoted. These results are almost continuously used as a perfect sample of equatorical air, and show that in tropical regions there is high correlations between barometric pressure at M. S. L. and temperature in the upper layer (or height of the tropopause) Some studies on the statistical relations of freeair temperature and pressure in tropical region have been worked out by P. R. Krishna Rao.(1) From the excellent Verhandelingen(2) of the Batavia Observatory we worked out for dry season (June-Oct.) and rainy season (Dec. -May) separately, as seasonal variations may affect the values of correlation coefficient to a considerable extent. In table 1 below only readings taken during ascent have been included and the information regarding the date and the height of the base of the stratosphere to which they refer has been gathered together. In calculating the following values corrections have not been made for instrumental errors. W. H. Dines(3) found that in middle latitudes a high temperature in the troposphere is associated with a high pressure at M. S. L., with a high level of the tropopause and with a low temperature at the base of the stratosphere. We found that over Batavia a high pressure at M. S. L. is associated with a high temperature in the troposphere and with a low temperature at the base of stratosphere in the dry season, but in the rainy season a high pressure at M. S. L. is associated with a low temperature in the troposphere, with a low level of the tropopause and with a high temperature at the base of the stratosphere. This is effectively equivalent to saying that in rainy season the barometric change over Batavia is relatively shallow vertical structure, whose excess of pressure is due to excess of density in the lower troposphere. The present study was carried out as a program of the 4th Comittee of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Scientific Research.
In this paper, the present author studied the correlations between the data of chemical analyses of rain water and meteorological elemente in Miyako from Oct. 1938 to Sept. 1940. There is a marked correlation between chloride content and wind velocity. Chloride in rain water appears to come from sea water. Seasonal variations in the concentrations of chloride, sulphuric acid, ammonia and nitrite are the same as those in Tokyo, Kobe, Hamamatu and Utunomiya reported by several authors.