A new design for the measurement of the ionic mobility distributions of naturally occurring radioactive aerosols is described. The main features include novel means for obtaining the time variations of mobility distributions. The apparatus is a cylindrical aspiration chamber having an inner electrode consisting of a thin wall gas flow counter. The charged radioactive aerosols are trapped along the axis of electrodes by radial field between two concentric cylinders. The distribution of radioactivity deposited along the inner electrode are obtained by changing the effective length of the counter. The procedures of experiments and practical treatments of data analysis are described in this paper.
The frictional charge of ice of artificially prepared polycrystalline and single crystals was measured. As a result, the following results were obtained. 1. When the ice of polycrystalline with a constant rubbing point (warmer ice or hot point) was rubbed with the ice rod of single crystal with variable rubbing points (colder ice), the former was electrified positively, although it was warmer. 2. When the ice rod of polycrystal with variable rubbing points (colder ice) was rubbed with the ice rod of single crystal, the former was positively electrified in the beginning of the rubbing experiment. However, when the rubbing was continued, the amount of positive electric charge of the polycrystal was decreased to near zero, then the sign was reversed to the negative. 3. It was found that after the reverse in sign, the surface structure of the constant rubbing point (warmer ice) in the ice rod of single crystal changed to polycrystalline, and the grain size of the polycrystalline newly produced by rubbing was as small as one tenth of the original polycrystal ice rod prepared. From the observational results it was concluded that the ice of polycrystalline was always electrified positive when it was rubbed with the ice of the single crystal, in spite of temperature difference. The smaller the grain size of polycrystal, the greater the tendency described above.
As a part of the study on the snow crystals with spatial branches, supercooled water droplets were made to attach and freeze to the surface of an ice plate at -10, -20 and -28°C air temperatures, then spatial branches of the dendritic form were formed on the frozen droplets at -15°C air temperature. And the angle between the branches and the ice plate was measured by the use of a universal stage. As a result of the measurement, it was found that at -20 and -28°C temperatures the angles were concentrated to 80°, however at -10°C temperature the angles were mostly distributed in the range between 40 and 50°. This result shows that the angle of spatial branches to the basal ice plate is not only determined by the lattice misfit of ice crystals, but is affected by a temperature where supercooled droplets were frozen on the ice plate.
As a part of the study on polycrystalline snow crystals, the angles between spatial branches of natural snow crystals were measured at the summit of Mt. Teine, utilizing a universal stage. It was found that the predominant angle was variable according to the crystal types of polycrystalline snow crystals, however the highest peak in the distribution of the angle was recognized around 70° in the all types of polycrystalline snow crystals. It was also found that a-axes of spatial branches are common to those of the basal plane in the snow crystal with spatial branches, as far as detected. Based on the fact described above, the lattice misfit of ice crystal was analyzed, consequently it was confirmed that the value of 70° angle of the spatial branches to the basal plane corresponds to the angle between (3032) and (0001) planes, and that the amount of the lattice misfit between the two planes is nearly zero. The result of this analysis appears to show that the matching theory is very useful to explain the angle of spatial branches to the basal plane etically, however, some questions were presented to the theoretical explanation.
Temperature distributions and its diurnal changes in the Martian atmosphere are computed numerically under a radiative-convective equilibrium. Especially, the green house effect of H2O having the amount obtained by the recent observations, and “dry-ice theory” about the polar cap are investigated. The effects of solar radiation, infrared radiation, sensible heat and conductive heat from the ground are included in this computation. It is assumed that carbon dioxide (83m-STP) and a small quantity of water vapour (35 micron precipitable water) are the radiating gases in the model atmosphere that has a surface pressure of 6.1mb. The model atmosphere is divided into 15 layers with height increment of 2km between the surface and 30km altitudes. The main results indicate that 1) the green house effect of H2O cannot be neglected at the nighttime near the ground; 2) at the nighttime the temperature inversion appears near the ground, and isothermal layer below 6 km except 85°N in summer season; 3) the tropopause-like level may reach 16 km at equatorial equinox, and 10km 42°S in winter and 85°N in summer. Production rate of solid-CO2 is estimated basing upon the results of temperature structure and change. The main results imply that 4) at the winter edge of the polar cap, the solid-CO2 may be produced in the early morning, and an opinion that the Martian North Polar Cap in summer may be composed of CO2 is not supported.
A southerly low-level jet appeared over Kyushu on July 7, 1970 when a large amount of precipitation was observed to the west of jet axis. The mesoscale thermal structure around the jet core shows an indirect indication of adjustment with the wind field but it is found to be highly unbalanced. The warmer area appearing below the jet core to the east is characterized by dryness, which is possibly generated by an indirect solenoidal circulation. Similar relationship among wind, temperature and relative humidity field is found in the lower troposphere even for the monthly mean values of June 1970.
The problem of dynamic stability of small amplitude motions on a two-fluid system with a free surface is considered. For the case of no rotation the character of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is shown to be different when compared to systems where the external gravitational modes are absent either through the mechanism of filtering or by imposing a rigid top. In the case of a constant rotation, it is shown that the instabilities on a wave length-shear plane consist of regions where only the gravitational modes or only the rotational modes or both independently are unstable, in addition to regions where instabilities are generated by an interaction between the gravitational and rotational modes.
The period and amplitude of amplitude vacillation in rotating annulus is studied using a simplified version of a two-layer quasi-geostrophic model which is also considered to be adiabatic and inviscid. The results are in reasonable agreement with the observations of Fowlis and Pfeffer, but do not explain why such a phenomenon should occur.