In the present notes, the equation, i.e., φ4+ξφ3-1=O of the Obukhoff-Monin's universal function φ, which was obtained by Yamamoto and Panofsky, is solved exactly. For three cases, i.e., a slightly diabatic case, a very unstable case and a very stable case, approximate solutions are obtained, which are the same with Kazansky-Monin and Yamamoto's formulae in the first approximations. Using the solutions, the formulae of the fluxes of heat and water vapor are obtained, which include the Thornthwaite-Holtzman's formula as a special case. The formula of the lapse rate is also obtained in the unstable atmosphere, which coincides with that of Obukhoff-Monin and Priestley.
Tests are made on the methods of estimating outflow boundary values when simple linear and non-linear advective equations are solved numerically by use of finite difference. Of nine schemes examined, four methods seem to be useful ; they are Methods 5, 6, 7 and 9 described in section 3. Errors occurring due to improper setting the outflow boundary condition propagate backward into the domain with slightly higher speed than that of advection speed.
On the basis of observational data presented by Sugawara (1956), it is found that the inorganic chemical composition of maritime aerosol, rainwater and snow in Japan differ systemtically from that of the sea water in such a way that logarithm of the enrichment coefficient of ions has an increasing linear relation with logarithm of their atomic weights. Na, Mg, K, Ca, CO3, Sr and I follow the present relation. F, Fe, Al and SO4 deviate markedly from it. Cl is of intermediate nature. The chemical data for other regions of the world show that the similar relation seems to hold for rainwaters in the Atlantic Ocean and in coastal areas of the Europe, of the North American Continent and also of the Antarctica. Discussions are made on possible physical mechanism and meteorological conditions necessary to make up the found empirical law. Some isotope fractionation mechanism like thermo-gravitational effect is suggested to be important for the ionic enrichment at the air-sea interface.
Some results on the drop size distribution of radiation fog near the ground at Asahikawa measured by gravity settling method are presented in Part 1. The concentration of small droplets with radii below 20 microns gradually increases until 10 to 50 minutes after the formation of the fog, then it has nearly constant value. At the base of the thick fog the large droplets with radii larger than 50 microns appear at the later stage of the development of the fog. In the shallow fog, on the other hand, the increase or decrease of the concentration of large and small droplets occurs concurrently. The influence of air temperature on the structure of fog is also studied. It is found that when the air temperature is above freezing the mean volume radius is 12.5 to 15 microns In the majority of the cases when the air temperature is below -5°C the mean volume radius is about 7.5 microns. In the winter fog the low liquid water contents between 10-4 and 10-2g/m3 are frequently found. It is suggested that in winter fog a large number of very fine particles are present and obscure the visibility. The measurements by means of a hand operated impactor and water-blue dye coated film reveal that many small droplets of radii less than 2 microns are present frequently in winter fog especially in smog and steam fog. Their results are shown in Part 2. It is further found that the local difference of the structure of fog and the effect of river steam are small in well developed radiation fog.
Experience revealed the existence of the tendency for high pressures at high latitudes to propagate southward, causing colder weather in central Japan about 3 pentads later. In this report, the relation between the pressure wave and the temperature change in the middle part of Japan is studied statistically and synoptically, using 5-day mean northern hemispherical sea-level and 500mb pressure anomaly data as the basic materials. In the result, the reality of such pressure wave is confirmed, its propagation process at upper level being recognized to be different from that at sea level. The utility of the empirical rule for forecasting the temperature (in central Japan) by attending to the high pressure at high latitudes is also confirmed.