This is a report about atmospherics observed in Tokyo for four years from 1932 to 1935 by using 30 kc/s waves. The results of following investigations are described: 1. Annual variation of atmospherics. 2. Diurnal variation of atmospherics. 3. Times of occurrence of maximum and minimum number of atmospherics. 4. Relation between violent thunderstorms and atmospherics. 5. Relation between the number of atmospherics and low pressures. 6. Relation between the number of atmospherics and magnetic storms. 7. Relation between the number of sunspots and that of atmospherics.
At the Calamity Research Institute in Oosaka, a tiltometer was constructed which is of new form taken after that of Dr. Wadati's long-period seismograph and its whole body is made of metal. This instrument was designed with following intensions: (1) portable by its small size and weight, (2) easily adjustable for every body, (3) scarcely influenced by temperature change, and (4) able to change photographic paper without any troublesome treatment. It is adopted Zellner's style to hang the horizontal pendulum with thin tungsten wires, and the frame has a symmetrical construction so as to avoid an irregular deformation by the influence of temperature change. The pendulum has a device of magnetic damping. The camera for recording the ground tilting consists of a hollow cube made of brass and has a rotating cylinder enveloped with a sheet of bromide paper in it. This camera can be separable from the other parts, so that the observation is able to be carried on even in a bright room, though the change of paper has to be done in a dark room. The pendulum can be easily brought to the state having a period of more than 30 sec. The experiments were done to obtain the relations between φ and y (inclination of the earth's surface and the displacement of a light spot), S and T0 (sensibility and the proper period), i and T0 (inclined angle of the pendulum axis and ibid.) etc. and all show satisfactory results for the present purpose of routine observation. These results may be seen in Fig. 4, 5, 6 and Table 1, 2.
It is well known that when the sea water is partly frozen, the remaining water becomes concentrated to produce brine. With the data of climatology and oceanography in Japan, the matter of the title is discussed. There are some locals where the process can be realized utilizing the low temperature of winter season. For example: Kusiro, Abasiri etc., in Hokkaidõ; all along the coast-line of Karahuto (Saghaline); northern coasts of east and west of Tyõsen (Korea) peninsula.
In the year 1932, we investigated deviations of some meteorological elements, such as temperature, water vapour etc., using the data of last 10 years observed at the summit of Mt. Tukuba, under the guidance of Prof. S. Fujiwhara and R. Sekiguti, in view of investigating the nature of anticyclones (air mass) which has an intimate relation with the weather of K wanto district. By the investigations of C. G. Rossby and others, it has been appreciated generally that the equivalent potential temperature is the most conservative quantity and therefore the best index to be used for the purpose of air mass analysis. Thus, we have recounted the deviations in the form of equivalent potential temperature form the data formerly obtained. By the tables and figures shown in this paper, we can see the characteristics of the polar maritime air frequently brought to the central part of Honsyu by the NE erly wet and cold wind with cloudy weather from the region of high pressure over the O kho tsk Sea.
In this study, the present author calculated the Fourier's coefficients a1…a5, and the phases φ1…φ5 in the formula for the amount R of rainfall, using the data of the monthly totals of rainfall reduced to those o, 30 days for 76 meteorological stations in Japan. (1) In Table 1 are given the value of Fourier's coefficients for rainfall. All the coefficients a1, a2, a31, a4 and a5 decrease with the increasing latitude. From a1φ1 figure (Fig. 4), the geographicaf distributon of these Fourier's coefficients can be classified into four different types, that is, the Formosa and Ryukyu type, Japan proper and Korea type, the Japan sea coast type and north Japan type. (2) It is seen that a close connection will exist between the amount of precipitation during the plum-rain season and the coefficients a1, a4 and a5.