The flux of primary scattered radiation received by the horizontal plane of 1cm2 at 75 levels placed at intervals of 500m from 1km to 38km are computed for solar altitudes 30°, 60°and 90°and the results summarized in the following four points are obtained; (1) The flux decreases with increase of q for given h and λi' (2) the flux increases with increase of h for given q and λi' (3) the wavelength in which the flux is maximum decreases with increase of q for given h (4) the wavelength mentioned in (3) decreases with increases of h for each q
An iterative scheme for computing the vertical velocity and the divergent part of wind velocity from only the rotational part of the observed wind data using the vorticity equation and the continuity equation is described. This scheme is suited for the analysis of synopticscale motions in the tropics. The iteration is convergent when absolute values of the absolute vorticity are not too small. A typical easterly wave over the Caribbean Sea in the summer of 1962 is analyzed by the proposed method. The easterly wave has upward motions to the east of the wave axis and downward motions to the west. The order of the maximum upward velocity is about -10 mb hour-1 (4 cm sec-1). Vertical motions around an upper-level shear line are studied, and the budget of vorticity is discussed.
Cloud rows of low-level and cirrus clouds were observed over the east Pacific Ocean between Los Angeles and Honolulu, with a 16mm timelapse movie camera. It was found that the pattern of the cloud rows was formed under the following conditions; a moist and unstable lower layer existed below a stable layer, and wind shear between the two layers was fairly large. The direction of the cloud rows was in parallel to the wind shear. This result supports the Malkus's consideration about the formation mechanism of cloud rows in the trade wind zone. Three dimensional analysis was made for the shape of the cirrus clouds, and it was found that the horizontal and vertical shapes could be roughly explained by wind shear at the level of the cirrus clouds, by assuming falling velocity of cirrus particles (ice crystals).
A cloud system accompanied by a cold front over the middle Northern Pacific Ocean between Honolulu and Midway was observed with a 16mm timelapse movie camera in an airplane. It was found that the Bergeron's classical model could explain the actual cloud distribution of the cold front fairly well, except the following points. 1. Most of cloud patterns around the front could be explained by considering the vertical wind shear between the neighbouring layers. 2. An alternative band structure of a cumulonimbus cloud and an altocumulus cloud was observed behind the cold front. The band structure could be explained on the basis of Kuettner:s theory on a band structure of clouds.