In this article the essential physical characteristics of the new outlook upon the actual operation of the general circulation are presented in a concise manner, mainly as a matter of philosophical interest. Certain general attitudes of the writer, pertaining to this subject are expounded for purposes of record.
To make clear influences of micro-topography on the wind structure near the ground, the variation of wind speed with height up to 5 meter above the ground was observed at various stations situated on the flat open land, and on the side slopes or in the bottom of the small valley. Differences of the profiles from the so-called logarithmic law were evident. The types of the profiles were grouped roughly into three types according to their micro-topographic situation. When the prevailing wind flows at right angle to the running direction of the small valley having steep side slopes, maximum of wind speed at 2-3 meter above the ground appeared on the lower part of the valley slope or in the valley bottom, owing to the counter flow of the lower part of eddies formed in the valley. The counter flow had some twisted characters with the direction of mountain or valley wind and the ratio of its speed to that of the prevailing wind showed a relation to the prevailing wind speed and the time of day.
Recently, the fact has already been published that anomalous polarization of the light scattered from the above has often been observed since 1954 and in lower atmosphere. This report is to investigate several cases of anomalous polarization observed since 1955 in Tokyo, Hakone, and the top of Mt. Fuji, etc.
A series of artificial snow-making experiment was carried out in the air at low pressures, and the relation between crystal forms and ambient temperature and pressure as represented by the Ta-p diagram (Fig. 9) was established. It was found that solid hexagonal columns are formed at pressures lower than 70mmHg, which is to be attributed to the slow rate of growth, that is, very slight supersaturation of the ambient vapour. The mode of growth at low pressure may probably be considered to have the same characteristics as the growth under quasi-equilibrium condition. By the aid of the results obtained from the present and previous experiments, we obtain the following scheme as to the snow crystal habit: