The squall line on 4 April 1959 at the Korea Straits is analyzed with the use of the surface observations from regular synoptic stations, upper air observations and PPI radar pictures. The analysis revealed that the mesohighs lay beneath the linear-echoes behind the squall line and they extended to the cold front, so that the original air that occupied the warm sector did not intervene into the space between the squall line or pressure surge line, and the cold front. Mesoanalysis of the upper wind, using a technique based on the concept that the time-section may be transformed into the space-section, proved that the upper air converged on such a lower level as 1000mb to 850mb level, and diverged on such a upper level as 500mb to 300mb level. It appears therefore that, this coupled with the thermal advection in the upper layer, and excited the production of thunderstorms in front of the cold front. Thermal and moisture advections from the sea surface and by the lower southerly current, however, were not so strong.
In this paper the relations between T.B, hemoptysis and pressure pattern as a synthesis of meteorological elements are studied statistically. T.B. hemoptysis that is related to meteorological conditions are classified to +, - and ± types, then it is found that each type corresponds to a special kind of pressure patterns. Further, detailed studies are made on this relationship as to summer thunder-storm and the pressure phase at a single point.
According to official observation, the maximum rainfall recorded in Japan is 55.9mm in 10 minutes, 87.9mm in 30 minutes, 157.0mm in 1 hour, 415.3mm in 6 hours, 844.5mm in 10 hours, 1, 109mm in 24 hours, 3, 462mm in 1 month and 10, 21.6mm in 1 year, Comparing these amounts with the world records reported by Jennings (1950), it is noticed that maximum rainfall in Japan is comparable only to world figures in the 1∼0 to 24 hour duration. This is thought to be because polar fronts or tropical cyclones in Japan and adjacent areas are stronger in that time period, while convectional rain, such as thunderstorms of short duration, or continuous rain, such as orographic rainfall under monsoonal conditions, are weaker than in another parts of the world. In addition, distribution maps of observed maximum rainfall within 10 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours and 24 hours were drawn, and the distribution patterns were considered in connection with their causes. The constants, k and n, for an experimental equation of the depth-duration curve, R=ktn, where t is time (in minutes) and R, rainfall amount (in mm), were then calculated. As for the rainfall amount, R, the mean values obtained from the 1 st to the 5 th ranking in the official records of the Japan Meteorological Agency from 1941 to 1950, as observed every 10, 20 and 30 minutes and every 1, 3, 6, 18, 24, and 36 hours for each of the 109 stations in Japan, were used. Separating the time periods into those between 10 minutes and 1 hour and those between 6 and 36 hours, it was shown that the k and n values exhibited a wide range according to geographical regions and the above-mentioned time periods. These facts are shown in the accompanying figures and tables. Finally, the constants, b, k, and n, for an experimental equation for the intensityduration curve, i=k/(t+b)n, where t is time (in minutes) and i, the rainfall intensity (in mm per minute) were obtained by calculating the intensity values by the same method as is described above for the mean rainfall values. The distribution of b, k, and n values revealed marked localization as is shown in the figures attached. The values decrease with distance from the sea coast in central Japan, and are generally smaller on mountain tops than at the bottoms.
It is well known that the occurrence of diseases and deaths is often connected with seasonal conditions, but there are not a few diseases which have little relationship with climatical and seasonal changes, and opinions differ among medical scientists as to the definition of seasonal diseases. In this paper, therefore, the author does not intend to discuss this point, but to present a tentative survey of death rates by disease and their geographical variations in prewar and postwar Japan. Thus, it is simply for sake of convenience that those diseases for which the death rates fluctuate seasonally are regarded as “seasonal diseases” in this paper, but the author believes that some facts found in the seasonal fluctuations of death rates by disease claim serious analysis and study from the standpoint of medical geography.
For the purpose of presenting information to the flow in the atmosphere near the earth's surface, experimental investigations of turbulent boundary layer on a horizontal flat plate placed in a uniform stream and heated from below have been conducted using JMA wind-tunnel. Simultaneous 22 observations of the mean velocity and the mean temperature in the boundary layer have been obtained for the ranges 1.8m/s<U∞<13m/s and 15 deg<ΔT<90deg. Results :-within these ranges, the distributions of velocity and temperature in the middle portion of turbulent boundary layer are nearly logarithmic. Similarity between the velocity and the thermal fields in the entire region of the boundary layer was, however, not found. These profiles are, on the other hand, also well represented by power law formulas. The Richardson number of the flow field in the above mentioned portion of the layer is found to be nearly proportional to the height z from a wall.