Abnormal variations mentioned in the title were recorded by using a specially designed differential galvanometer, and the records were compared with the abnormal variations calculated by the method described in my previous paper; and the coincidence between them was satisfactorily good. The abrupt changes in the direction of current were calculated from the records obtained by the instruments reported in my previous paper and the component of direction due to the abrupt changes was directed towards the epicenter.
It was found that cylindrical filter paper dyed by the dye-stuff (Indanthrene's dye-stuff: Indanthrene Black, B. B., Indanthrene Brilliant G. B., and Anthra Yellow G C N.) gives very good results for the evaporating surface of the atmometer and that the ratio of the length of filter paper to the amount of evaporation is constant for three atmometers used in the experiment, the lengths being 15cm, 9cm and 7cm. Thus we see that the newly designed atmometer is more convenient than any other atmometers used in ecological research.
A Fuess-Robitzsch-actinograph No.13123 and a Hasegawa-actinograph No.2436 of the same type were calibrated, by comparing with an Ångströmpyrheliometer No.234 and a silver-disc pyrheliometer No.754 which was designed by Prof. R. Sekiguti and made in the C. M. O. workshop. The observations were made during the period from March, 1937, to March, 1938. According to the difference of the spectral distribution between the sun- and the sky-light, a correction should be added to the constant of the actinographs of this type, which is determined by the comparison with the pyrheliometer. As Dr. W. Mörikofer and others showed, the constant of this actinograph given by Prof. M. Robitzsch was proved to be too large. The correcting factor obtained by the direct comparison with the pyrheliometer only was 0.80 in the mean, and it becomes about 0.09 smaller, when we take the correction ξ/η into consideration. The latter correction was not exactly determined, but estimated by comparing the intensities of sky-radiation observed by our actinographs with the results obtained by Drs. A. F. Moore and C. H. Abbot on Mt. Hump in 1917. The intensities of sky-radiation computed from readings of Fuess No.13123 were, in any condition of the atmosphere, larger than the results obtained by Hasegawa No.2436. This difference might be explained by the difference of the thickness of glass-globes and of the reflective power of radiation in the range of long wavelengths. Fuess No.13123 has a glass-globe of 1mm thickness, and surfaces of its bimetals have been somewhat spoiled by the long use. On the other hand, the thickness of glass-globe of Hasegawa No.2436 is 3mm, and the sensitivity of this actinograph is larger. The results of our observation of sky-radiation agreed with those of Moore and Abbot's observation in better approximation in Hasegawa No.2436 than in Fuess No.13123. We, therefore, assumed, as the first approxiamtion, that in Hasegawa No 2436 ξ/η was equal to unity and the results obtained with this actinograph were more trustworthy. This negative correction is larger than the results given by H. Stapf in Met. Zeit, 1938. The future problem is to study the correction ξ/η more fully. The variations of the constant with the altitude and the azimuth of the sun were studied also. It is found, besides the same results obtained hitherto, that the constant increases as cos z becomes smaller than 0.44. The causes of these variations were also studied in detail. The greater value of the constant in the higher altitude of the sun could not be explained on the theoretical ground. But it is likely that the cause may be sought in the cooling effects due to the conduction of heat, convection currents, long-wave radiation, etc. The constant must be changed according to the condition of the atmosphere, and under the entirely overcast sky it seems preferable to use the value obtained directly from the comparison with the pyrheliometer. It was also found that the effect of the radiation incoming through the glass-window is not large.
Ye-gawa (or Ye-kawa, ye: pond, kawa or gawa: river) is a branch of Yosino-gawa (one of the greatest river of Japan). Long and narrow ponds (depth 0.5-1 meter) constitute the head-water of Ye-gawa and there gushes much water at the bottom of the ponds. The water temperature there falls to about 9° on summer days when the air temperature rises as high as about 30° (July-August), and rises to 22° on winter days when the air temperature falls as low as 2-3° (December-January). Such variation of water temperature is extraordinary and moreover when the water temperature reaches the maximum, abundant evolution of gas begins and when it approaches the minimum, evolution of gas ceases. The gas bubbles are observed at the bottom of the ponds and seem to follow the gush of water. The chemical composition of the gas coincides nearly with that of the atmospheric air (see Table 1 in the text). The mechanism of such anomalous temperature variation and seasonal evolution of gas is given on some assumptions. The former is presumably attributed to the alternation of underground water and the latter to the atmospheric air mechanically swallowed up by the underground water at some other places.
A year is diveded into two half seasons: summer half and winter half. The former involves 7 months from April to October and the latter remaining 5 months from November to March. Such division of a year is a customary one on the stand point of plant ecology and bioclimatology. The ratio of the total precipitation during summer half to that of winter half is calculated for the observed value at various meteorological stations in Japan, and the distribution of the ratio is shown in the maps.
In Summer we hang up a “Hurin” or windbell from the eaves and refresh ourselves hearing its musical sounds. The author hung up the bell in a wind tunnel, and investigated the way of ringing of it in various wind velocities, varying the size of “tanzaku”, a piece of paper hanging down from the tongue of the bell.