Being based on the following principle, the apparatus was constructed : The ice crystals produced from supercooled fog will, every time they strike against an electrically heated metal (platinum) wire and come to be held thereon, cool the wire half a moment as they each absorb from it the heat of volatilization, leading to the decreases in electrical resistance of wire and, therefore, to the increases in electrical current flowing through it ; these are tape-recorded as pulses in voltage, which are transmitted successively to a discriminative system composed of electronic circuit in order to separate themselves from disturbing noises and are, then, detected by means of oscillography and/or the electronic counter method, the freezing temperature being determined as the temperature from which onwards the count of pulses rises sharply. As for the discriminative system described above, two types (A and B) were examined in turn, and the latter was found to be more available. The apparatus was tested with fogs of aqueous solution of KCl (10-5N) and of K3PO4 (10-5N), their average droplet size being both s p in diameter. Comparison was made, for the fogs obtained from KCl solutions (10-1-10-6N), between the Bigg's sugar solution method and those in the present and previous reports, with the finding that there exists a good correspondence. Further experiments have been done, using the apparatus, with a variety of electrolyte containing fogs. The results obtained and its discussion will be given in the next communication.
Results are described of measurements of the electric charge of individual cloud particles of diameter ranging from 15μ to 200μ carried out at the top of Mt. Teine from 1957 to 1959. The cloud particles are classified into warm cloud particles, supercooled cloud particles, frozen cloud particles and ice particles. Both positive and negative cloud particles were observed but the portion of negative cloud particles was larger than that of positive ones through the cloud particles of all types. Mirror image relation like that in rainfall held in most cases. The magnitude of charge of cloud particles was roughly proportional to the cube of their diameters. In liquid state, charged cloud particles were considerably larger than non-charged ones. Considering those results, the mechanism of electrification of relatively large cloud particles was considered to be as follows. In initial state of electrification, cloud particles are charged to the sign opposite to that of the prevailing electric field as a result of Wilson's ion capture process. Then larger cloud particles grow by uniting with smaller charged cloud particles of same sign produced by Wilson's process. After freezing of cloud particles, further charge generation by mutual friction will occur.
Relationships between solar activity and climate were studied from the long-term variations of early summer rainfall at Seoul in Korea and from the fluctuations of the Savoie glaciers of the Alps. It is concluded that strong solar activity, as evidenced by sunspot highs, tends to favor a meridional type of circulation and to intensify thermal convection between middle and high latitudes. Opposite variation of the high-latitude glaciers and the Alpine glaciers, such as in the neighborhoods of the years 1700 and 1750, may be explained in terms of heat lost in the middle latiudes and gained in the high latitudes. The great glacier shrinkage of the last forty years or so, which has run parallel in both the middle and the high latitudes, seems rather an exceptional phenomenon from the standpoint of past history. It is ascribable to an extraordinarily intensified transfer of heat from the lower latitudes and corresponds to a chaotic cellular pattern of general circulation.
An attempt is made to explain the dynamical mechanism on formation of typhoons.The process of formation is regarded as transformation process or destabilization process of a large-scale pre-existing disturbance into a violent free convection. Chapter 1 is devoted to a general discussion on various free and forced convections in the atmosphere and their development. Especially, the growth rate of free meridional circulations in a circular vortex under the unstably and⁄or the stably stratified atmosphere is obtained as a function of their horizontal scales. It is shown that the existence of radial temperature gradient with weak but stable stratification causes a situation in which the first horizontal mode of the convection in the vortex develops most rapidly. The mechanism of instability is essentially the same as that observed in violent Hadley type convection in rotating dishpan experiments, which has been discussed theoretically by Kuo. In Chapter 2, an explanation of the process taking place in actual typhoon formation is made, where the whole process is divided into three stages:(i)the existence of dynamically caused vertical motion with an easterly wave, (ii) the excitation of numerous cumulus convections within the disturbance and the warming at the center of disturbance due to liberation of latent heat of condensation, (iii) the transformation of the disturbance into a large violent free convection due to radial temperature gradient produced. The conclusion is that the condensation process does not contribute to induce the primary vertical circulation in typhoons even at the formative stage, but that its importance lies in creation and maintenance of the warm core of the typhoons.