In this paper, precipitation rate retrieval algorithms for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission's Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) are developed. The DPR consists of a Ku-band radar (KuPR; 13.6 GHz) and a Ka-band radar (KaPR; 35.5 GHz). For the KuPR, an algorithm similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar algorithm is developed, with the relation between precipitation rate R and massweighted mean diameter Dm (R−Dm relation) replacing the relation between the specific attenuation k and effective radar reflectivity factor Ze. The R−Dm relation can also be applied to the KaPR and dual-frequency algorithms. In both the single-frequency and dual-frequency algorithms, the forward retrieval method is applied with an assumed adjustment factor for the R−Dm relation (ε) and the results are evaluated to select the best value of ε. The advantages of the dual-frequency algorithm are the availability of the dual-frequency surface reference technique and the ZfKa method, which is a method to use the attenuation-corrected radar reflectivity factor Zf of KaPR, to select ε as well as the possibility to selectively use measurements from KuPR or KaPR. This paper also describes the derivation of the scattering table and the R−Dm relation as well as the procedure for non-uniform beam filling correction in detail. The outputs are then statistically analyzed to demonstrate algorithm performance.
The history of observational studies regarding the influence of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is reviewed. QBO phases of westerly (QBO W) and easterly (QBO E) winds are defined in the lower stratosphere. During 1960–1978, radiosonde data revealed QBO modulation of the UTLS with a warm anomaly during QBO W in the tropics and cool anomalies near 30°S and 30°N. This pattern agreed with theory of the QBO mean meridional circulation (MMC), which predicted a coherent, antiphased response between the tropics and subtropics. During 1978–1994, satellite observations of aerosol and temperature confirmed the existence of the QBO MMC. During 1994–2001, global data sets enabled analysis of zonal mean QBO variations in tropopause temperature. In 2001, National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalyses for the 42-yr period 1958–2000 revealed seasonal and geographical variations in QBO W–E tropopause temperature, pressure, and zonal wind, which are presented here. An update using the 38-yr Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2, and the 40-yr European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data sets provides a more complete view of seasonal and geographical variation.
The QBO range in tropical tropopause values is ∼ 0.5–2 K, ∼ 100–300 m, and ∼ 1–3 hPa, being colder and higher during QBO E, especially during boreal winter and spring. The QBO temperature signal tends to be larger near regions where deep convection is common. The QBO signal in the southern subtropics is enhanced during austral winter. During QBO W, the subtropical westerly jet is enhanced, while the Walker circulation is weaker, especially during boreal spring. A new climatology of the QBO MMC is presented. QBO E may enhance convection by reducing both static stability and wind shear in the UTLS.
This study investigates the synoptic-scale flows associated with extreme rainfall systems over the Asian–Australian monsoon region (90–160°E and 12°S–27°N). On the basis of the statistics of the 17-year Precipitation Radar observations from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, a total of 916 extreme systems, with both the horizontal size and maximum rainfall intensity exceeding the 99.9th percentiles of the tropical rainfall systems, are identified over this region. The synoptic wind pattern and rainfall distribution surrounding each system are classified into four major types: vortex, coastal, coastal with vortex, and none of above, with each accounting for 44, 29, 7, and 20 %, respectively. The vortex type occurs mainly over the off-equatorial areas in boreal summer. The coast-related types show significant seasonal variations in their occurrence, with high frequency in the Bay of Bengal in boreal summer and on the west side of Borneo and Sumatra in boreal winter. The none-of-the-above type occurs mostly over the open ocean and in boreal winter; these events are mainly associated with the cold surge events. The environment analysis shows that coast-related extremes in the warm season are found within the areas where high total water vapor and low-level vertical wind shear occur frequently. Despite the different synoptic environments, these extremes show a similar internal structure, with broad stratiform and wide convective core (WCC) rain. Furthermore, the maximum rain rate is located mostly over the convective area, near the convective–stratiform boundary in the system. Our results highlight the critical role of the strength and direction of synoptic flows in the generation of extreme rainfall systems near coastal areas. With the enhancement of the low-level vertical wind shear and moisture by the synoptic flow, the coastal convection triggered diurnally has a higher chance to organize into mesoscale convective systems and hence a higher probability to produce extreme rainfall.
Atmospheric transport of aerosols such as black carbon (BC) affects the absorption/scattering of solar radiation, precipitation, and snow/ice cover, especially in areas of low human activity such as the Arctic. The resolution dependency of simulated BC transport from Siberia to the Arctic, related to the well-developed low-pressure systems in September, was evaluated using the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model–Spectral Radiation Transport Model for Aerosol Species (NICAM-SPRINTARS) with fine (∼ 56 km) and coarse (∼ 220 km) horizontal resolutions. These low-pressure systems have a large horizontal scale (∼ 2000 km) with the well-developed central pressure located on the transport pathway from East Asia to the Arctic through Siberia. In recent years, the events analysis of the most developed low-pressure system indicated that the high-BC area in the Bering Sea observed by the Japanese research vessel Mirai on September 26–27, 2016, moved to the Arctic with a filamental structure from the low's center to the behind of the cold front and ahead of the warm front in relation to its ascending motion on September 27–28, 2016. The composite analysis for the developed low-pressure events in September from 2015 to 2018 indicated that the high-BC area was located eastward of the low's center in relation to the ascending motion over the low's center and northward/eastward area. Since the area of the maximum ascending motion has a small horizontal scale, this was not well simulated by the 220-km experiment. The study identified that the BC transport to the Arctic in September is enhanced by the well-developed low-pressure systems. The results of the transport model indicate that the material transport processes to the Arctic by the well-developed low-pressure systems are enhanced in the fine horizontal resolution (∼ 56 km) models relative to the coarse horizontal resolution (∼ 220 km) models.
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a significant role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Despite the relevance of methane (CH4) in human-induced climate change and air pollution chemistry, there is no scientific consensus on the causes of changes in its growth rates and variability over the past three decades. We use a well-validated chemistry–transport model for simulating CH4 concentration and estimation of regional CH4 emissions by inverse modeling during 1988–2016. The control simulations are conducted using seasonally varying hydroxyl (OH) concentrations and assumed no interannual variability. Using inverse modeling of atmospheric observations, emission inventories, a wetland model, and a δ13C-CH4 box model, we show that reductions in emissions from Europe and Russia since 1988, particularly from oil–gas exploitation and enteric fermentation, led to decreased CH4 growth rates in the 1990s. This period was followed by a quasi-stationary state of CH4 in the atmosphere during the early 2000s. CH4 resumed growth from 2007, which we attribute to increases in emissions from coal mining mainly in China and the intensification of ruminant farming in tropical regions. A sensitivity simulation using interannually varying OH shows that regional emission estimates by inversion are unaffected for the mid- and high latitude areas. We show that meridional shift in CH4 emissions toward the lower latitudes and the increase in CH4 loss by hydroxyl (OH) over the tropics finely balance out, keeping the CH4 gradients between the southern hemispheric tropical and polar sites relatively unchanged during 1988–2016. The latitudinal emissions shift is confirmed using the global distributions of the total column CH4 observations via satellite remote sensing. During our analysis period, there is no evidence of emission enhancement due to climate warming, including the boreal regions. These findings highlight key sectors for effective emission reduction strategies toward climate change mitigation.
This study examines the predictability of an enhanced monsoon trough, which is accompanied by a largescale cyclone in the lower troposphere, south of Japan seen in late August 2016. The monsoon trough is found to be enhanced by a meandering of the Asian jet and a consequent southwestward intrusion of upper-level high potential vorticity associated with a Rossby wave breaking east of Japan. Japan Meteorological Agency's operational one-month ensemble prediction during the forecast period of a week underestimates the intensity of the Rossby wave breaking and fails to predict the enhanced monsoon trough. A simple sensitivity analysis based on ensemble singular vectors indicates that initial perturbations over the Bering Sea and near the Asian jet entrance region can efficiently grow and propagate toward the region to the south of Japan, contributing to maximize the perturbations of the enhanced monsoon trough. The time evolution of the perturbations propagating toward the region to the south of Japan is consistent with that of the ensemble spread during the forecast period. Perturbed hindcast experiments were conducted with the initial perturbations obtained from the simple sensitivity analysis. The monsoon trough to the south of Japan in the perturbed experiment is significantly more enhanced than the unperturbed experiment, supporting the simple sensitivity analysis. These results indicate a crucial contribution of the initial perturbations associated with the Rossby wave breaking and near the Asian jet entrance region to the limited predictability of the enhanced monsoon trough in late August 2016.
This study proposes a method of detecting three-dimensional hail distribution by using the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) products in combination with the atmospheric temperature from a reanalysis product. In this study, the hail class contains hailstones, high-density graupel, and small frozen droplets. The radar reflectivity at the Ku-band (ZKu) and dual-frequency ratio (DFR) values are examined for hydrometeor classification at the five atmospheric temperature ranges in comparison to the ground radar product in a test hailstorm case. A simple model assuming binary collision for the riming process, which represents a significant reduction in the number concentration with the conservation of the mass concentration, explains well the hail signals on the scatterplot of ZKu and the DFR. This study determines the thresholds of the ZKu and DFR values at each temperature range based on the simple model. Furthermore, this study evaluates the thresholds in 74 hailstorm cases and proposes two filters to remove melting snow and rain contamination below the freezing level. The 5-year dataset of the GPM-DPR observations shows that hail is widely distributed over oceanic convergence zones as well as over continental convective regions. Most oceanic hail layers are found to be thin (i.e., less than 1500 m) and confined near the freezing level. Therefore, such hail signals have been potentially missed by ground observations. An additional filter removes such thin hail layers and effectively works to detect only deep hailstorms, specifically over continental regions.
This study analyzes the modulation of planetary waves associated with the Eurasian (EU) pattern—one of the dominant teleconnection patterns seen over northern Eurasia in the boreal winter—through composite analyses using the Japanese 55-year reanalysis dataset to reveal its dynamic mechanism, including wave-mean flow interaction.
From the viewpoint of deviation from climatological flow, the EU pattern is known as a stationary Rossby wave teleconnection type with an equivalent barotropic structure and action centers over northern Europe, mid-western Siberia, and Japan. However, from the viewpoint of deviation from the zonal average, the EU pattern modulates planetary wave activities, which include the East Asian winter monsoon as one component.
In the positive phase of the EU pattern, corresponding to the enhanced Asian monsoon, the upward and eastward propagation of the planetary wave from Central Eurasia to the North Pacific in the troposphere is enhanced, compared with that of the climatology. The baroclinic energy conversion from the zonal mean to the deviation from that over East Asia contributes to the amplified planetary wave. The enhanced upward and eastward propagating planetary wave converges in the upper troposphere, thereby causing anomalous extratropical direct circulation and cold outflow toward the lower mid-latitude troposphere. These results indicate that the EU pattern is one of the global dynamic modes related primarily to planetary wave activities.
This study assesses the predictability of an enhanced monsoon trough south of Japan in late August 2016, which is accompanied by Rossby wave propagation over Eurasia and a consequent anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking east of Japan, with a relaxation technique using an atmospheric general circulation model. Three types of the relaxation experiments are conducted, with nudging the model forecast in the upper troposphere toward reanalysis, for regions of the Rossby wave breaking east of Japan, the Rossby wave propagation over Eurasia, and both the regions from Eurasia to the east of Japan. All types of the relaxation experiments show improved reproducibility of the enhanced monsoon trough, which the operational one-month ensemble prediction in Japan Meteorological Agency failed to predict. Compared with a result of a control experiment, the relaxation experiments show the more amplified Rossby wave propagation over Eurasia and Rossby wave breaking east of Japan, as seen in the reanalysis. The upper-level wave amplification contributes to the improved reproducibility of the enhanced monsoon trough, through that of southwestward intrusion of upper-level high potential vorticity airmass toward the southeast of Japan. The results of relaxation experiments indicate primary and secondary contributions from corrected forecast errors of the Rossby wave breaking east of Japan and the Rossby wave propagation over Eurasia to the predictability of the monsoon trough, respectively. Their relative contributions to the enhanced monsoon trough are consistent with a result of ensemble-based simple sensitivity analysis shown in a related previous study.