In order to identify air masses Rossby has recently constructed an adiabatic diagram bearing his name. As the variables of the diagram he prefered two important meteorological elements, potential temperature and mixing ratio, as conservative factors for an air mass. However the potential temperature and mixing ratio change by the radiation, mixing and the condensation of water vapour. The author investigated how they change by mixing and concluded that when the condensation does not occur they become nearly equal to their mean value but are dependent of the pressure at the final state when the condensation occurs. By using the Rossby diagram, however, their values can easily be estimated even when the pressure of the two air masses is different from each other. As the equivalent potential temperature is independent of the pressure at the final state its deviation from the mean value of the two air masses before mixing is tabulated (table 1). Also the author showed that the temperature of the mixture is easily estimated on the Rossby diagram when the water vapour condenses.
I tried to measure the insolation duration at 18 places in Hakone mountain range by using the Topoheliometer Which I deviced and annoumced in the Geophysical Magazine, Vol. X, No.3 & 4, 1935. The result of this measurement showed us interesting relation between insolation duration and the shape of mountain range.
Between the mean maximum for 20 min. (υ) and the instantaneous maximum (V) of wind velocity, the following relation is found for each of 26 stations, V=x+y.v. (m/s) where x is nearly equal to zero and y is generaly between 13 and 17.
It is well known that when a thin horizontallayer of a fluid heated gradually from below, the stream caused by convection makes well-ordered cellular vortices under a certain condition. Although the condition has been investigated theoretically and experimentally by many authors there are still want of knowledge about the dimension of the cells. In the present study, the average diameter of the vortices were measured by counting the number of cells in a given area. The cells were made in the liquid mixture of benzene petroleum B and carbon tetrachloride, and aluminium powder was suspended in it in order to make the cells visible. The results are shown in Figs. 3 and 4. It was found that the diameter d increased with increasing h, the thickness of the layer, and with increasing Δθ, the temperature difference between the top and the bottom of the layer. The effect of the former was stronger than that of the latter. It was proved that the ratio d/h cannot be represented by a function of the single variable λ (_??_8Δθ), a dimensionless quantity defined in the text.
The problem on the permeation of water into soil is of great value for the branch of agriculture. In this short note the present author investigated the special cases of the permeation of rain water into soil from the observations of temperatures at different depths, because the observations of soil temperature are frequently done at various stations. The feature of the permeation is almost the same as done by the electric resistance method.