Net flux of long wave radiation and its divergence in the model atmospheres were calculated numerically and tabulated. Glancing over the tables, it was found that the change of the net flux and its divergence due to the change of water vapour amount was comparatively small while the change by cloudiness was large. The values of cooling rate of the atmosphere calculated by the present authors were compared with London's calculations. It was found that both values agreed roughly in middle troposphere, but that there were differences near the earth's surface and the upper stratosphere.
Surface electric field during rainfall was observed simultaneously by means of measurement of charge on raindrops and rainfall intensity from 1956 to 1958. “Mirror image” relation was observed in almost all rainfalls but the results obtained under relatively weak surface electric field showed many evidences that the relation is not explained by Wilson's induction theory. It is concluded that space charge due to charge on raindrops has some effect on surface electric field.
In order to investigate the influence of the impurities dissolved in water droplets upon their freezing, the following experiment was carried out : aqueous dilute solutions of electrolyte were dispersed, with the aid of a nebulizer, to fogs of droplet size of 8μ diameter in average, and their freezing temperatures were observed in a thermostatlike cold chamber maintained at temperatures from -5°to -40°C. As for the electrolytes used, NaCI, NaBr, NaI, KCI, KBr, and KI were selected as the 1 to 1-valent type salt, BaCl2, BaBr2 and BaI2 as the 2 to 1-valent type salt, and further, A1C13 and A1Br3 as the 3 to 1-valent type salt. The results were such that (1) the freezing temperature varies with the concentration of electrolyte, and the highest temperatures are found at the concentrations of approximately 10-4, 10-6, and 10-8N for 1 to 1-, 2 to 1- and 3 to 1-valent type salts, respectively; and (2) with the electrolytes tested, the freezing temperature falls into the series I- (highest) >Br->Cl- (lowest) so far as the same metal ion is concerned.
There are only a few lakes in Japan, near which both observation data of weather and water surface temperature are available for a long period. The author estimated the evaporation from these lakes by heat budget method, mainly using meteorological factors, water surface temperatures and especially, in Lake Kawaguchi, the vertical distribution of water temperature. The same estimation was done by the evaporation formula based on the turbulence theory. As the results it has been found that the yearly amount and the yearly variation process can be estimated by both methods, and that the neglect of energy storage in the water in the heat budget has a considerable influence upon the monthly amount but not upon the yearly one.
Treating large-scale horizontal atmospheric perturbations in the upper atmosphere as locally similar eddies, the author derives the expressions for various fundamental statistical quantities of eddies at any latitude in terms of the quantities depending only on the distribution of mean zonal motion. However, an examination of the results by Mintz's data does not give sufficiently satisfactory results.