The rate of dissipation of turbulent energy ε is studied in the nondimensional form e≡ (kz⁄V*3)ε because of its close relationship to the thermal stability in the surface boundary layer. e is evaluated from the structure function and spectral energy density obtained with respect to the wind speed, and theoretical value of e is further compared with observations. e is described by the nondimensional stability parameter ξ and the universal function of wind profile φ(ξ). The results show: (1) Monin-Obukhov's similarity theory is still valid in the inertial subrange. (2) As to the form of the universal function of the wind profile, observations by Rider and Swinbank and those by Gurvich show the different characteristics that exist in the stable conditions. In the appendix the constants of structure functions are re-evaluated from the data by Swinbank and Taylor.
Vertical ozone distributions are estimated from Umkehr observations at Tateno, Sapporo, Kagoshima, Torishima and Marcus, in and near Japan, according to Walton's method A. The effects of observational errors and of the assumption of ozone amount below 12km height on the result are discussed at first. Comparing the results by the method A with those by the method B, it is revealed that differences between the results by the two methods seem to be caused partly by the assumption of ozone amount below 12km. At Tateno, ozone in 12-24km height is about 40% of total ozone or more, and ozone in 24-36km is about 40% of total or less. Correlation coefficients of the ozone amount in 12-24km height and that in 24-36km with 200mb height are given, and relations between vertical distributions of ozone and temperature in August are shown. Seasonal variations of ozone in each layer at the five stations are discussed qualitatively.
Using the author's method for the scattering problem in a model of the earth's atmosphere composed of sufficient numbers of homogeneous spherical shell he has computed the intensity resulting respectively from the primary and secondary scattering coming from all portions in the sky dome to a point on the earth's surface, and accordingly the sky radiation received on a horizontal surface at the point. The computed results are compared with Sekera's obtained by means of Chandrasekhar's solution for the radiative transfer problem in a plane-parallel model of the earth's atmosphere with respect to the horizontal surface. The author's relative horizontal intensity resulting only from the primary scattering (i.e. in the unit of the extraterrestrial solar radiation at the corresponding wavelength) has the same feature of dependency to the wavelength and solar zenith distance with the result given by Sekera. The author's relative horizontal intensity resulting from only the secondary scattering has also the same feature of dependency to the wavelength and solar zenithdistance with the result given by Sekera. The integrated relative horizontal global radiation for the whole range of wavelength is in good agreement with Sekera's in the range of zenith distance 0°∼90°, in such a way that one cannot discriminate both curves on the graph.
The mass spectra of large and giant hygroscopic particles in the air are measured by means of a hand-operated impactor and a microscope. Our results are in good agreement with the spectra obtained by several investigators at different places of the world. The concentrations of the giant particles are largest on the sea or on the coast and decrease to one tenth at distances of about 100 km from the coast. Further decrease of the concentration is observed at cloud base. These observations suggest that the main source of the giant hygroscopic particles is the ocean. It is further found that there are enough giant hygroscopic nuclei for the production of drizzle at the stratus cloud base.
As a model of the drift of snow crystals and flakes, field experiments were carried out on drift and turbulent diffusion of paperlets emitted from aircraft. The size of a paperlet used was 2×2 cm. The paperlets fallen on the ground were collected by the citizens in Sapporo, and were returned to our laboratory. The experiments were carried out on February 1, February 28 and March 16, 1961. Fig. 10 shows the isopleths of the collected paperlets emitted at 450 m on February 28. Fig. 11 is for those emitted at 1800 m on March 16. The horizontal diffusion coefficient was estimated as the order of magnitude of 105cm2⁄sec, according to Sakagami's formula for an instantaneous point source.