A simple relation for the calculation of the “direct importation of mass” was introduced, and by means of it the annual variations of the atmospheric pressure due to the adverction above and below some high stations were calculated. The results were indicated in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. and finally the several types of the annual variation of the atmospheric pressure were investigated.
Nach der Methode Von Anfinn Refsdal ist mittels Aerogramm eine einfache und schnelle Höhenberechnung auf rein grapischem Wege ermöglicht. In einer kurzen Arbeit zeigt Paul J. Kiefer, wie das Emagramm für aerologischen Höhenberechnungen sich verwenden lässt. Man machtes zweckmässig derartig dass sämtliche Adiabatentafeln ausser den Trocken-und Feuchtadiabaten noch die neue Linien enthalten, die auf dem Emagramm die konstanten Geopotentialunterschiede angeben. Die Kurven konvergieren derart dass ihr gegenseitiger Abstand der absoluten Temperatur umgekehrt proportional ist (Abb. 2). Es folgt dann dass man Höhen-und Energiebetrachtungen auf dem Emagramm in den meinsten Fällen mit genügender Genauigkeit nach dem Augenmass berechnen kann.
From the energetic stand point of view, the weather and the climate may be thought as an exchange of energy from one form to the other, and herce it will be interesting and important to study the exchange of heat in the atmosphere. The present authors have ever calculated the energy exchange at a selected station, Tokyo and found that the most important energies were due to radiation, evaporation, condensation, convection and conduction by turbulence. Now we wish further continue to treat this problem. Here the energy by convection is neglected, and the following equations and the boundary conditions are introduced:- equation of heat exchange, boundary conditions where the first term of the equation expres_??_es the conductive heat by radiation in the sense of Brunt's treatment, which is discussed here once more exactly, and the second term represents the exchange of energy by water and the last term the transfer of heat by turbulence. This equation was solved under the boundary conditions given above and the results were summerized as follows. (1) The isothermal layer is produced at the upper layer of the atmosphere. (2) The temperatures at the surface and upperlaver are given by (3) It was shown that they agree fairy well with the actual ones within the error of the observation. (4) The lapse rate is given by (5) The air temperature at every height is calculated by the above equation step by step from the surface temperature. (6) It is found that the calculated value agrees with the observation at least qualitatively.
En tia-_??_i raporto a_??_toro indikas, ke de “Konservativ-principo de maso” (2.1) kaj la teorio de Helmholtz pri “Vektorkampo” (2.2) oni povas trovi ekvaciojn (3.2) per _??_an_??_o de parametroj (3.1), kio estas tre similaj al ekvacioj de Schrödinger. De tia-_??_i fakto a_??_toro donas signifon fizikan de ρ kaj V per ideo de probableco. (Vidu formulojn (4.1), (4.3), (4.4)!) A_??_toro proponas la_??_ kvantumme_??_anika analogo unu metodon de meznombriga procezo (4.6), kin estas ne uzita en hidrodinamiko _??_is hodia_??_, sed estas necesa por konservo de la formo (2.1). De formuloj (3.2) kaj (4.2) oni trovas la ekvacion de movado uzante rilaton (4.3). La formulo (5.3) estas unu _??_eneraligita formulo de Madelung, En § 6 a_??_toro interpretas la vortecan movadon per meznombra procezo (4.6) de la sistemo de fluidaj grajnoj (6.1), kio donas similan konkludon de la teorio de Helmholz pri l'vorteco.
(2) Propagation of Tunami Wave in Osaka Bay. The condition of propagation of Tunami in the Osaka bay may be percepted by the model experiments accomplished by Mr. Matuo. The model used for this experiment is 16 meters in length and 8 meters in width. A long wave was sent from the place corresponding to the Tomogasima Suido (Straits) by means of a wooden plate moving forward from its initial position inclined backwards with its end hinged on the bottom. The wave motion thus made is recorded at various places at the surface, and both the travel time curve and the heights of the first wave are shown in Figs. 2 and 3 by broken curves. Besides, in Fig. 1 is shown the feature of the propagation of head of the Ist wave. We assume the wave to be a part of the harmonic one having a period of 4, 7 sec. and the “narrow sea theory” be applicable appoximately, to the phenomenon then the equation of this motion can be expressed where ζ is the surface elevation, and b(x), S(x) are breadth and sectional area of the bay respectively. Admitting these assumptions, we treat the case of the solution ζ=fcos (vt-φ) and substituting it in (I) and making the coefficients of sine and cosine to zero, we have From (2) we get where k denotes the constant which should be determined by initial conditions. Substituting (3) in (I) we have By integrating (4) mechanically under the initial conditions which are the same as observed in the experiment, we can evaluate the values off f for several places and applying them to (3) we may have the wave velocity for their places, consequently we can determine the travel time curve mechanically. These values thus obtained are shown in the table (I) and indicated graphically in Figs. 2 and 3, in which the values obtained experimentally are also traced. Fig. 2 shows the close coincidence of the calculated travel time curve with that observed. But as is seen in Fig. 3 the calculated amplitude f does not fit so closely with that observed. This fact is considered to be due to the feature of the progression of the wave.
Earthquakes which occurred in the Pacific Ocean near Japan were so often accompained with tunamis that among 50 great earthquakes almost half were followed by them. The Osaka bay is communicated with the Pacific Ocean through the Yura straits. Though the Yura straits is narrow, it is so deep that the Osaka bay was often attacked by tunami. Present authors made an experiment on the tunami of the Osaka bay by a model, the horizontal and vertical ratios to the Osaka bay being 1:135000 and 1:1000 respectively. The model was put in the water tank, its length, breadth and height being 1.85cm, 75cm, 50cm; and the tunami wave was generated by a brass plate by pulling or pushing it longitudinally in the tank (Fig. 1. in the text). On 13 points in the bay the tunami was recorded on the rotating film by using small tide-gauges (Fig. 3) specially deviced for this experiment. Results of experiment show that in the middle of the Osaka bay the oscillation is much different from that which occurs at each end of the longer axis of the bay. In the middle of the bay, -(1) the amplitude is small, (2) the fourth wave has the largest amplitude, (3) oscillations are irregular, (4) the first wave is comparatively large. On the contrary at both ends, -(1) the amplitude is large, (2) the second wave has the largest amplitude, (3) oscillations are regular, (4) the first wave is comparatively small. The height of tunami is largest near the coast of Sakai which is about 2.5 times large as that experienced in Yura straits. On the coasts of Osaka and Nisinomiya it is 2.2, 1.7 times large respectively, and at other places it is nearly equal to that experienced in the Yura str its.
On the 11th of Sep. 1937, a typhoon caused moderate flooding damage along the northern and NE-ern coasts of the Oosaka bay and the northern coasts of Harima-Nada (Sea). The author, as was investigated by Mr. T. Hirono and K. Sakata, has tried to find some relations between the height of sea level and the meteorological elements by using the observational data. The high water is investigated in two cases, the one (a) for increasing stage and the other (b) for decreasing one. The equations showing the relation between the meteorological elements and the elevation of sea level for the increasing stage are as follows;- where A is abnormal elevation of water level (cm), P atmospheric pressure (mm), V and υ SW-component of wind velocity at the Oosaka harbour and at the air port of Kizugawaziri respectively, and W S-component of the wind velocity over the Kii channel before two hours. Figures in brackets show probable errors. For the decreasing stage, ΔA=-47.83+3.37ΔV-1.32 ΔP (±6.3) ΔA=-47.60+4.74Δυ-1.32 ΔP (±7.4)…(b) where ΔA is the diminution of water level (cm) from its greatest value, ΔV, Δυ the deviation of V, υ from the value observed when the greatest height of sea level occurred, and ΔP that of pressure. In those equations, it is considered after Wadati's idea that the rise of the sea level in the Oosaka bay depends greatly upon the S-erly wind blowing over the Kii channel. Equations (b) shows that the height of sea level diminished quickly about 48cm during one hour just after its maximum, and then decreased linearly by and by according as the wind weakened. This is perhaps due to the slope current occurred instantaneously after the sea level attained the greatest height. From the results of (a) group, we can see that the rate of inflow current (U0) occurred then through the Kitan straights is obtained as U0=0.00448 W(m/s), assuming the uniform velocity with depth and consequently considering theoretical results between the wind and the drift current velocity, we get a=0.0013 as the extinction coefficient of the current velocity with depth. Lastly the author expresses his best thanks to Dr. Wadati for his kind guidance for this investigation.