In normal dew-point practice, we take the conventional assumption that the vapour pressure gradient in the layer near the cooled surface is zero. But we know a concentration gradient is set up as the result of the nonuniformity of the temperature. In the present note, the magnitude of the vapour pressure gradient is theoretically estimated.
Based upon the analysis of the calendars of "seasonal diseases" in Japan by localities (postwar conditions compared with prewar conditions), the author assumed that "death from any disease declines in proportion to the general progress of human culture and, moreover, the season of prevalence gradually moves from summer to winter ". In this paper, she has tried to test this assumption by preparing the calendars of seasonal diseases for some Western countries. As a result, it may be concluded that the author's assumpion or the steady migration of diseases from summer to winter has been proved somehowor other. It has also been proved that "the gap between diseases with high death rates andthose with low rates gets wider and wider as human culture goes headway ". This tendency is clearly seen in the calendar prepared for England, France and the United States : the death rate has gone off to less than 10 for such diseases as whooping cough, measles, tyhoid, dysentery, gasteritis enteritis group, and avitaminosis, while on the other hand death frequently occurs from heart diseases, cancer, apoplexy etc. Insofar as "the concentration of the prevalence of seasonal diseases in winter" and as "the gap between diseases with high death rates and those with low death rates are concerned, Japan cannot be regarded as ranking among the cultural countries like England or France. But in near future, it may be expected that the Japanese calendar will gradually approach the pattern of the British one.
The contribution of scattering received at the earth's surface from any point in the atmosphere has been found to obey some rules. In the primary scattering, irrespectively of direction, the intensity generated by the higher atmosphere is predominant in the longer wavelength. The intensity is maximum in the sun's direction and minimum in the direction rectangular to it, being intermediate between both extremities in anti-solar direction, in constant altitude and wavelength. It diminishes with increase in altitude and becomes minimum in zenith, in constant azimuth and wavelength. The intensity of secondary scattering received at the earth's surface from any point in the atmosphere generated by the primary scattering coming from all directions is predominant in shorter wavelength in higher atmosphere and at larger altitude. The partial intensity for each wavelength increases progressively with decrease in elevation in every direction. It decreases with increase in altitude for each azimuth and elevation. The partial intensity for each wavelength is maximum in the sun's direction and minimum in the direction rectangular to it, being intermediate between the two in antisolar direction at constant altitude. It . decreases with increasing altitude in each azimuth. The position of the wavelength in which the maximum value takes place for each azimuth displaces to the shorter at larger altitude. The partial horizontal scattering intensity is maximum at the shortest and decreases monotonously with increasing wavelength.
Stability properties and eddy transport of physical quantities due to the simple baroclinic disturbance are investigated basing upon the kinematical relation. The significance of the scale is stressed in the process of energy transformation when the mean tonal flow has both vertical and horizontal wind shear.
It is first demonstrated that the solutions of the primitive equations of motion in both barotropic and baroclinic atmospheres which do not include noticeable meteorological noise can be derived by the perturbation method on the basis of usual geostrophic equations.Namely, the order of magnitude of each term in the equations of motion is estimated using the Rossby number, and the necessary solutions are expanded in the power series of the Rossby number. When the power series does not converge, a method how to treat is then shown especially for the balance equation and this method gives a new method solving the balance equation. It is next shown that when numerical integration is executed by the difference method, particular attention should be paid for an appearance of the secular term. And it is finally shown that though the total energy is conserved in the closed quasigeostrophic system but it is not conserved without neglecting the quantities of order of the Rossby number in the higher approximate system.