Using the data of surface observation, amounts of temperature change during three hours due to the horizontal advection of air are calculated for every 3 hours during one month of May 1954; and they are compared with observed local changes in temperature. Further the daily series of the individual changes in temperature are compared with those of the heat supplied to the earth's surface. Then, it is shown that in daytime they are well correlated with each other, and that in later night the correlation is low, though in early night it is comparatively high. These circumstances are discussed in this paper.
The liquid water content of a precipitating warm cloud is expressed as a function of upward velocity, taking into account the difference between the rate of condensation which accumulates the liquid water in the cloud and the rate of rainfall, which carries it out of the cloud. As for the condensation nuclei of raindrops, a simplified analytical expression of woodcock's size distribution (1953) is used. The liquid water content in a steady state is found to be proportional to 1/3 power of the upward velocity, the numerical values of which, for example, are 0.42, 0.90 and 1.93g/m3 for upward velocities 10cm/sec, 1 and 10m/sec respectively in a typical condition for the cloud and sea-salt nuclei. In transient state, the liquid water content of the cloud is found to take a maximum at a certain time after the beginning of cloud formation if upward velocities are larger than 10cm/sec, thereafter it begins to decrease due to falling out of raindrops and approaches a value of steady state. Preferred appropriate upward velocity for initial raindrop formation due to the presence of large sea-salt nuclei is discriminated from that due to the coalescence mechanism under the presence of various size distribution of nuclei. Effect of the entrainment of surrounding air into cloud on the salinity of rain water is qualitatively discussed from the viewpoint of nuclei budget of the cloud.
In the early autumn or the “Shurin” season of 1951, Japan was dominated by abnormal coolness and persistent rain for a month. In the present study, this abnormal weather condition is investigated based primarily on the 5-day mean and 15-day mean 500 mb charts from the view-point of seasonal, change of pattern from summer to Shurin season. As a result, the world-wide shift of flow pattern is found to be responsible to the seasonal weather change in Japan. Furthermore, it is shown that the typhoon appearing in the late summer does a trigger action to the seasonal change of westerlies, causing cold air to shift southward and warm air northward, which is the main cause to bring about a seasonal change in large-scale pattern and seasonal weather change in Japan.
A simplified theory of the external gravity waves in compressible fluid is presented, and some dynamical tools which are useful for analysis of the recorded microbarographic oscillations due to the hydrogen bomb explosions are obtained. A theoretical contradiction of non-existence of the waves with periods shorter than ca. 1.5 minutes which arises when the two-layer model is adopted, is resolved by introducing the warm ozonosphere as the uppermost layer of four-layer model.
Arranging various kinds of wave materials obtained by visual observations from weather ships or military planes for ninety five typhoons, several maps showing the mean distribution of wave heights and periods were constructed, and the relation of wave heights and periods to the speed and the central pressure of the storm vas discussed. Moreover, the rate of decrease of waves with the distance from the storm center and the difference of wave distribution among quadrants in the storm were investigated. From the results thus obtained, empirical formulas and diagrams were derived, which will serve as a first approximation for the calculation of wave heights and periods, although discrepancies between calculated and observed values are not always small because of the variety of wave distribution and the complicated spectral structure of storm waves.