The problem of the polward eddy flux of angular momentum called the attention of many meteorologists. The present paper is devoted to the transformation of the Reynolds equations of mean motion and the Reynolds energy equation for the mean motion into the orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. In the second section, the theory is illustrated by applications to cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates. In the third section, the mechanism of a conversion of the eddy. kinetic energy into the kinetic energy of mean zonal flow in the inter-tropical latitudes is discussed, in order to illustrate the maintenance of westerlies in the middle latitudes. In the last section, a conversion of the eddy kinetic energy into the kinetic energy of mean revolving motion in the storm region of typhoons is suggested.
In this paper, some characteristics of the model of isotropic turbulence are studied from the view-point of energy spectrum of turbulence. At first, the influence of the running-mean process of the original turbulent velocity on the spectral distribution of energy is discussed. It is then studied, what spectral properties the “Turbulenzelement” has, which is introduced by Weizsäcker, and by what kind of running mean process Inoue's “turbulon model” is derived. By this study, it is made clear the interrelation between the theories of the above-mentioned authors on the isotropic turbulence and those of other authors, and furthermore the well-known “-5/3 power law” of the energy spectrum is again derived by means of the equation of energy balance, which is somewhat different in form from those of Obukhoff's and Heisenberg's.
The size-distribution, falling velocity, and crystal form of snow-flakes were observed, mainly on those of graupel type. Observation for the size-disribution was made by the absorbing method using filter paper which was grounded by fine methylen-blue particles. The trace diameter of melted snow was transformed to equivalent water drop diameter. At the same time we took microphotograph of the crystal form. For observation of falling velocity, a dark box was made in which snow falling space was illuminated by a high pressure mercury lamp, and the traces of falling snow-flakes were taken by a camera in dotted lines, and then falling velocity was calculated from the length of the line. Some considerations were made on the result of these observations, and the followings are summarized: 1) The size-distribution of snow-flakes is shown in figure 8. 2) A number of small size particles (smaller than 0.25mm) related disconstruction of the snow-flakes. 3) If the each size is transformed to precipitation amount, 0.25_??_1.25mm is the most predominent part. 4) Frequency distribution for the falling velocity were shown in Figure 9 and 10. 5) Relation between the size of crystal and diameter of droplet is shown in Figure 11, 0.8_??_1.5mm graupel gathered along dw=0.499 ds line. where dw is the water droplet diameter and ds is the size of crystal. 6) There is no relationship between size of crystal and diameter of droplet in the particles smaller than 0.8mm in diameter.