To add unique flavors and favorable characteristics to alcohol drinks, we screened Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from 14 municipal flowers, beach flowers and algal beach casts in Ishikawa, Japan. Among the 796 isolates, 63 strains from four municipal flowers and 6 strains from the algal beach casts produced 10% (v/v) ethanol in peptone-yeast extract broth containing 20% (w/v) glucose. From these strains, selected 24 strains were identified by characteristics of carbohydrate utilization and ITS gene sequencing. All of the strains were identified as S. cerevisiae. In the one-step small moromi model (2 g of Aspergillus oryzae malted rice (koji) and 4 g of α-processed rice were diluted to 17.5 ml with spring water) test at 15°C for 14 days, the isolates could produce sufficient amounts of ethanol (15-16%, v/v). In comparison with general sake-yeast Kyokai-No.7, the isolates had an increased acid value and lower pH. Malic acid content, which is regarded as a contributor of crispy and refreshing flavors in sake brewing, was increased significantly by an isolate from algae (Misaki-1). The algal strain differed from the flower-yeasts in carbohydrate utilization and 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC)-reducing activity. These results suggest that the S. cerevisiae strains isolated and selected in this study, particularly the algal-yeast Misaki-1, can be excellent starters for the brewing of sake and the other alcoholic drinks.
We have studied the two assay methods of the 1Step Real-Time RT-PCR and conventional Real-Time RT-PCR (2Step) using ABI PRISM 7000 Sequence Detection System (ABI PRISM 7000) and Thermal Cycler Dice Real Time System (Thermal Cycler Dice) for the detection of Norovirus (NV) genogroups I (G1) and II (GII). Thermal Cycler Dice showed the same performance with the sensitivity and the quantitation compared with ABI PRISM 7000 that the official assay presented for the detection of NV. Both of the 1Step and 2Step Real-Time RT-PCR enabled to get the rapid results about 90 minutes. Excepting the probes with MGB, the primers and probes used in this study were identical with those used in the official assay. Results of field samples using both of the instruments and both of the assays were the same. Hence, these assays are very useful laboratory techniques for the detection of NV from field samples.