日本食品微生物学会雑誌
Online ISSN : 1882-5982
Print ISSN : 1340-8267
ISSN-L : 1340-8267
24 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
Education Lecture
  • James BRUCKNER, Kasthuri VENKATESWARAN
    2007 年 24 巻 2 号 p. 61-70
    発行日: 2007/07/31
    公開日: 2008/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    The detection and evaluation of microbial contamination is the goal of many programs in the medical, food, pharmaceutical, and environmental monitoring/biothreat detection industries. Similarly, NASA's Planetary Protection program strives to assess, as well as prevent, microbial contamination in spacecraft assembly facilities and on spacecraft themselves. The development of improved methods and technologies designed to facilitate these common goals is therefore important. This review will focus on instrumentation and techniques currently being utilized or evaluated for use by the Planetary Protection program in the clean room environments of spacecraft assembly facilities. Current sampling technologies (novel sampling instrumentation and different collection materials) were compared with NASA standard protocols under field and controlled conditions. A brief literature review was presented to augment the comparisons. Additionally, as the integrity of sample analyses is directly dependent on both the efficiency of sample collection and the quality of sample processing, a novel nucleic acid extraction instrument was also evaluated. The impact of these new technologies will be discussed with respect to sample collection, processing, and analyses from the low biomass environments present in NASA clean rooms, although the findings may be applied in a broader context to other industries and programs as well as to the development of future integrated biosensors.
シンポジウム: 日本を震撼させたO157による集団食中毒―その後の10年―
原著
  • 石崎 直人, 柴田 幹良, 金子 誠二, 甲斐 明美, 山田 澄夫
    2007 年 24 巻 2 号 p. 94-99
    発行日: 2007/07/31
    公開日: 2008/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    市販食肉に分布する腸球菌の病原因子保有状況を把握するために, 東京都内で購入した国産食肉153件および輸入食肉36件, 計189件を対象に調査を行った. E. faecalis は国産食肉から113件 (73.9%, 192株), 輸入食肉から26件 (72.2%, 50株), E. faecium は国産食肉から13件 (8.5%), 輸入食肉から3件 (8.3%) 検出された.
    分離株につき, ゼラチナーゼ遺伝子 (gelE ), 凝集物質遺伝子 (asa1 ), cytolysin遺伝子 (cylA ) およびenterococcal surface protein遺伝子 (esp ) の検出をPCR法にて行った. その結果, 病原遺伝子保有E. faecalis は国産食肉では97件 (63.4%), 輸入食肉では26件 (72.2%) から検出された. 一方, 病原遺伝子保有E. faecium は国産食肉1件 (0.7%) から検出されたのみであった.
    E. faecalis において高率に保有していた病原遺伝子は国産, 輸入食肉共にgelE (77.1% vs. 78.0%), 次いでasa1 (50.5% vs. 76.0%), cylA (13.0% vs. 20.0%), esp (5.7% vs. 12.0%) であった. cylA またはesp 遺伝子を保有するE. faecalis 株は, 全株とも他の病原遺伝子を同時に保有し, その保有パターンは臨床由来株と同様であった.
短報
  • 藤尾 公輔, 清水 晃, 松村 浩介, 河野 潤一, 北川 浩, 五十君 靜信
    2007 年 24 巻 2 号 p. 100-106
    発行日: 2007/07/31
    公開日: 2008/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    A total of 414 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw meat, humans, pigs and chickens between 2002 and 2005 were examined for susceptibility to 14 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method. In the isolates from dressed meat, the resistance rates were 54.4% (107/196), 66.7% (12/18) and 50.0% (9/18) in isolates from chicken, pork and beef, respectively. In the isolates from minced meat, the resistance rates were 78.1% (25/32), 83.3% (25/30) and 65.4% (17/26) in isolates from chicken, pork and beef, respectively. Most (86.7%) of the 195 resistant isolates showed multiple resistance to between two and eight antimicrobials. The most frequent anitimicrobial resistance profiles were PCG/ABPC (47.3%) and PCG/ABPC with other antimicrobials (one to six antimicrobials, 24.3%). Relatively high frequencies of resistance were observed with PCG (37.8%), ABPC (37.8%), OTC (20.9%), NFLX (17.5%) and EM (10.3%). The other 9 antimicrobials such as DSM, KM, LCM, BFLX, CP, MPIPC, CEZ, CEX or CET showed resistance levels below 10.0%. Only one MRSA isolate was isolated from minced pork. Commercial raw meat may contain resistant S. aureus posing a potential risk to consumers. In the isolates from the nares of humans, pigs and chickens, the resistance rates were 50.0% (17/34), 96.4% (53/55) and 100% (5/5) in isolates from humans, pigs and chickens, respectively. Resistance to PCG and ABPC was the most frequent in isolates from humans (38.2%) and pigs (65.5%). The pig isolates were also highly resistant to OTC (61.8%). A high frequency of restance to LCM (100%), OTC (80.0%) and EM (80.0%) was found in the isolates from chickens.
feedback
Top