Atoms flying through a spatially periodic field can be resonantly excited by experiencing a temporally oscillating field. Using a crystal field and high energy ions, the oscillating frequency rises up to the X-ray region where optical sources are not easily applicable. Here we review the internal state manipulation of fast heavy ions in a thin Si crystal realized by the double resonance and polarization control techniques.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), for which the Japanese team has paid a significant effort from the time of its early days, ended in 2008 with all scintific marks contemplated in the beginning of the project, we believe, satisfied by now. This brief sketch outlines the project, motivation, design of the instruments and a few selected major outcomes.
It has been a long time since Big Bang nucleosynthesis was established as one of the pillars of standard cosmology. Moreover, its success has made it a laboratory in nature to probe a theory which cannot be tested on the Earth. In this article, we introduce recent topics of Big Bang nucleosynthesis in the era of unprecedented development of cosmological observations. We review recent progress and issues in observations of the light element abundances in the light of precise cosmic microwave background radiation experiments. Also, we describe how we can probe supersymmetry, which is the most promising candidate for a theory beyond the standard model of particle physics, through Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Big Bang nucleosynthesis is still relevant to unexplored areas in astrophysics, nuclear physics and particle physics. It would keep developing in concert with various fields of science.
Professors M. Kobayashi and T. Maskawa proposed a mechanism of CP violation in the Standard Model of particle physics. CP violation is closely related to solve the mystery of asymmetry between particles and anti-particles in the universe, but it is known that Kobayashi-Maskawa theory cannot explain the present aymmetry satisfactorily. In this article, we report our recent results on new CP violation mechanisms based on higher dimensional theories.